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ST J E R O M. 




CJlJU.sTul'iiER SI TTO.V. D.D. 


' So teach us to n'lmber our days , that we may apply cor hearts 
unto wisdom." Psalm L. 




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Disce vinere : 


L E A U N E 

TO Live. 


Wherein is shewed. 

that the hfe of Christ is, 

and ought to be, an expresse 

pattemefor imitation vnto 

the life of a Christian, 

fo far as in him lieth. 

MATiirvv. 11. 2;t. 

Discite ex me, S^c. 

Leame of me. 

lolu. l:J. \r,. 
Dedl vobis exemplum, 8fC. 

I haue given you an insample. 

Printed at London by /. D. 

for Nicholas Bourne, at the 




Roijall Exchange, 1626. 




'T'HE foIlo\ving work was written by its Author 
-■- after his " Disce Mori," and before his 
" Godly Meditations on the Lord's Supper ;" 
and it may be said to come between them also in 
respect to the depth and seriousness of tone in 
which it is written. The unusually fervent 
language of his last work, the Meditations, was 
suggested by its peculiarly sacred subject; the 
" Disce Mori," on the other hand, which was his 
first, treating a subject which belongs to natural as 
well as revealed religion, admitted of reflections 
derived from a variety of sources, besides those 
which are especially of a Christian or Gospel 
character. In the work which came next, the 
" Disce Vivere," he moulded his materials, after 
the manner of a Kempis, into an " Imitatio 
Christi ;" each chapter inculcating some duty 



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upon the pattern of Him who gave Himself to be 
the beginning and the end of all perfection. 
Subsequently, it seems to have been the author's 
wish to frame his former treatise upon the same 
model, and in an edition later than the publication 
of the " Disce Vivere," which has been followed 
in the Oxford reprint of the present year, he pre- 
fixed a chapter on the imitation of our Lord's death 
with this purpose, as far as a mere addition might 
stand in the place of a rearrangement. 

The present work is printed from the last edition 
in the Author's lifetime, that of 1626; in the 
Preface, however, the original text is retained, the 
alterations afterwards made in it having been 
apparently dictated by circumstances of the day, 
which need not be taken into account now. 

J. H. N. 

Feast of St. Simon and St. Jude, 


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His very good Lady 


AMONGST arts and sciences, right virtuous Lady, 
there is none without comparison more beseeming 
our Christian care and learning, than that which teacheth 
to live well and godly whilst we are here, that afterward 
we may live eternally when we are departed hence. 
For most sure it is, that upon this moment of time, a 
moment of great moment, depends either an unrecover- 
able loss, or an happy welfare in the world to come. 
And from hence it is, that I call the well ordering of 
our life in this world " a learning to live." A learning, 
because it is a matter of labour and study : to live 
Christian-like, to live, because without good and godly 
life, w-e are said rather to be, than live. 

To stir up our dulness to this learning, I have 
thought good to lay before the eyes of the well- disposed 
Christian, the tenor of the life of Chi-ist, the best pattern 
for imitation of living that ever the world had. 
Children will follow their parents : nature doth teach 
the bees to go forth at the very voice of their king or 
leader : we may go to school to these small creatures ; 
we have not only the voice of our heavenly King and 
Leader, but according to His humanity, His example of 
life also to call us forth to gather the pleasant sap of 
several virtues, that so at the eventide of our age, we 
may return loaden with the sweet honey of holiness, 
unto that safe hive of everlasting peace. 

To incite, or stir us up to the imitation of this most 
dinne life of our Saviour, there do arise three principal 

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motives for our better instruction in this lesson of 
" learning to live." The first is drawn from the less 
to the greater, as thus; we should be humble, meek, 
patient ; Christ the Son of God our Redeemer was so. 
The second is taken fromhis conversation amongst men; 
we should be helpful unto others, loving to our friends, 
charitable to our enemies, for this our Redeemer did. 
The third is from the end of all our actions, the hai-\-est 
of al! our labours, we ought to endure the crosses and 
calamities of the world ; our Redeemer Christ endured 
them, and so entered into His glory. 

How little this learning is thought upon, much less 
practised in these days, we see it too apparently before 
our eyes. Of this St. Chrysostom complained long ago, 
taxing the carelessness of Christians in his time, when 
he willed men either to have opera secundum profes- 
sionem, that is to say, "works according to their profes- 
sion :" or, professionem secundum opera., "a profession 
agreeable unto their works." For this default, there 
needs no further proof but experience, when some, 
that which 1 am sorry to mention, have little of Chris- 
tianity except the name. 

Other treatises, right virtuous Lady, I confess have 
their force to call men to the amendment of life : but 
by this of taking a survey of the life of Christ, both men 
and women, yea, every age, and every dignity of this 
world, is more effectually stirred up to godly life than 
by any other mean, when they truly consider the blessed 
life of Christ their only Saviour and Redeemer, seeing 
of Christ they are called Christians. 

JMadam, I humbly commend the discourse itself, such 
as it is, unto your Ladyship's gentle acceptation, and 
your Ladyship evermore in my prayers to God : and so 
I rest, 

Your Honour's, 
in dutiful sort to be commanded, 


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TF to live were no other but to draw in and to breathe 
out the soft air, as the Wise Man speaketh, a need- 
less labour were it, good Christian reader, to lay down 
any instructions unto the world, of "learning to live;" 
for this is done naturally, both of men and beasts, 
without any teaching or learning at all. 

If to live were no other but to cast about for the 
favour and riches of the world, as some men are wont 
to call it, the way to live, then would it soon follow, 
the greater IMachiavelians, the better livers ; somewhat 
more there is required to live Christianly than so, some- 
what more, I say, and that all shall one day find, 
than either drawing in and breathing out the soft air, 
or the plotting to compass the pleasures and profits of 
the world. It was Balaam's wish, " Let me die the 
death of the righteous a," it should have first been 
his practice to live the life of the righteous. The 



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time we spend as we do, for the most part, consuming 
our days in vanity, and our years in folly, to say a 
plain truth, as in the sight of God, is rather a death 
than life ; for life is not that which is measured by the 
:iumber of years, it is the religious, honest, sober and 
harmless conversation, that draweth to an honourable 
age amongst men here, and to eternal happiness with 
God hereafter. 

Now the general decay of this Christian course, is 
the general course of these sinful days, wherein so many 
have just cause to cry out. This is a wicked world, a 
wretched world, an ungodly world ; such as our fore- 
fathers before us never saw. A^^th the buyer, eveiy 
one can say, It is nought, it is nought : " but for all 
this," saith St. Austin t", " a profession it is, but no 
amendment is seen ;" religion is become nothing less 
than religion, to wit, a matter of mere talk ; such 
politizing is there on all parts as a man cannot tell who 
is who ; so little sincerity in regard we have of our 
souls, as if we had no souls at all. 

When Plato saw the Argentines live so unreformedly 
as they did, " Surely these men," quoth he, " live as if 
they should never die." Whatsoever men for fashion's 
sake may give out in words, it is to be feared there is 
in some no firm belief of another world settled in their 
hearts. Eli said, " This is not well ;" young men 
without obedience, old men without devotion. Christians 
without charity ; it would make one's heart to mourn 
to consider seriously the calamity of our time, when 

b Aug. de Temp. Nat. Serm. 30. 

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there needs no more, but as Philip said unto Nathauael, 
" Come and see'." 

"Without all, peradventure Christianity is much out 
of frame, if we consider things aright ; we are generally 
Christians in name, but in action nothing-less, far from 
the old Christianity of the world, howsoever we are 
ready to control all that ever lived, and will not stick 
to censure the blessed Saints of Heaven. Our boldness 
is great, and I pray God our security do not mar all in 
the end. 

Cornelius, Cornelius, thy almsgiving and thy prayers 
in this sense also are ascended up into Hea%'en<l, for 
where are they to be found amongst us here on 
earth ? In times past, Christians vowed themselves to 
all holiness of life, they served God in htinger and 
thirst, in watching and praying night and day ; they 
cared not to be poor unto the world, so they might be 
rich unto God ; to be pilgrims, or as banished men 
upon the earth, so they might be citizens in Heaven. 
These holy friends of Christ, as confessors, IMartyrs, 
virgins, devout Christians of all sorts, men fearing 
God and eschewing evil ; these gave evident testimony 
to the world, whose servants they were. It was once 
the complaining wish of CiBsar, " O that we had such 
soldiers as were in the time of Alexander the Great !" 

liive we do ; is it to God ? I would to God it were ! 
We pass on for a while, after a fashion, such as it is, 
but is all this to live Christianly ? No, verily : so a 
private estate in this world be provided for, let all sink or 

c Jobn I. 46. d Acts x.4. 

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swim for the world to come ; we respect ourselves only, 
neglecting all others. " Christ pleased not Himself," 
saith the Apostle, with us it is otherwise ; and yet we 
think ourselves perfect Christians, in that great know- 
ledge we have, for we sin not so much of ignorance as 
of negligence, we know but little as we ought. What 
availeth it to have Pharaoh's glory and Pharaoh's ig- 
nominy ? Ahab's vineyard and Ahab's destruction ? the 
rich man's life and the rich man's death ? What blind- 
ness is it in seeking riches or honour ! " Wilt thou 
perish," saith St. Austin, " for that which perisheth .'"' 
Thus we go on, and that which is worse, we cannot tell 
when we shall make an end : thus we live and thus we 

■WTiat other remedy in this estate of things, the dis- 
ease being so general as it is, and the gangrene spread 
almost into every part, than with the ruler in the 
Gospel, Avho, when there was no way but one in the 
sight of man, with his sick son he comes unto Christ 
with his " Lord, come down, or ever that my son die e ;" 
or to renew that petition of the prophet David, " It is 
time. Lord, that Thou have mercy upon Sion, yea, the 
time is come^." All that men can do in this case is to 
observe the manner of loving friends, who in visiting 
the sick party, every one brings somewhat, by the grace 
of God, to further his health ; for while God doth afford 
space for repentance, we may not despair of any one's 
conversion in pai-ticular, and so long as loving. He 
vouchsafeth us the light of His tnith and Gospel, we 

c John iv. 47, 49. I Psalm cii. 13. 

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should not cast off all hope concerning the amend- 
ment of all in general : and therefore to advise 
men for the best, it is their care to whom God 
hath commended in His own stead a fatherly care of 
souls ; those of their religious orders beyond the seas, to 
do them no wrong, but to give them their right, bend 
their studies, many of them, to treat of devotion ; and 
their treatises of this quality, some of them are learned 
and laudable ; while busy heads are about " mint and 
cummins," while factious statists '* are working mischief, 
men better advised according to their vocation respect 
weightier matters of the law; which we all should 
respect, remembering there is a necessity laid upon us 
to live well : we run for a wager, we fight for a 

In seeking to repair devotion and piety, which this 
world hath well near lost, we will be as ready as them- 
selves, and in honouring our Lord Jesus Christ, who 
hath honoured us all, we will go with them hand in 
hand : we hope one day to see the goodness of the Lord 
in the land of the living, howsoever uncharitable, un- 
priestly, and unchristian censurers in many spiteful 
pamphlets give out against us. It is true, the sinful- 
ness of this age is great, with sighing hearts we wish it 
were otherwise, and with the Publican say, " Now God 
be merciful unto us, for we are sinners." But, sirs, are 
we alone in this defect of godliness ? Your own writers 
will tell you. No : unhappily your own experience can 
tell you. No: seeing iniquity, like the darkness of Egypt, 

g Matt, xxiti, 33. h [Satists,ed. 1603.] 

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hath spread itself over the face of the earth, AVould to God 
this bitterness were left on both sides ! When ]\Iichael 
fought against the dragon, IMichael and his angels 
fought, they fought not angels against angels : should 
we fight Christians against Christians ? IMoses would not 
have an Hebrew smite an Hebrew. There is a com- 
mon adversary of us all, who lieth in wait like a subtle 
spy, whose desire is to make discord and trouble in 
earth, because he can trouble Heaven no more. 

Well, let busy meddlers content themselves and serve 
God humbly in their calling ; let them cease to trouble 
the peace of this Church and commonwealth, which 
Jesus Christ long continue, remembering that of 
Gamaliel, " If this counsel be of men it will come to 
nought, but if it be of God you cannot destroy ith." 
Sufficient to salvation, and that which every well-dis- 
posed man may use to his soul's health, is truly taught 
by the grace of God, notwithstanding some turn the 
grace of God to liberty : the best means to restrain this 
liberty are daily wished, and some good success would 
ensue if every one would apply himself to the exercises 
of Christian piety in his own practice. 

Were we no other but plain natural men, God giving 
us reason and understanding, we are hence moved to 
pass our time orderly whilst we are here : it is our com- 
mon saying, "Better unborn than untaught;" but being 
Christian men, merciful Lord, should we not remem- 
ber the happy hope we all have or ought to have. 

In the Articles of our Creed we mention an evei'last- 

h Act» r. 38, 39. 

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I ing life after death, and acknowledge a judgment to 
1 come : O, good God, that we should live as if Hell fire 
I were no other but a poetical fiction ! Assuredly we do 

our calling open injury, acknowledging the holy catholic 

Christian faith, when our profession promiseth one thing 

and our practice performeth another. 

Is it not wonderful that we should even forget Whose 
j creatures we are ? yet this we do ; all know their begin- 
1 ning was from God, and that after awhile in God they 

must end : now for to spend this space between the 

beginning and the end in undutiful sort toward Him, 

were in very reason unreasonable. 

The Apostle St. Paul speaketh of some men, who 
■ indeed confess God, " but by their works," saith he, 

" they deny Him > ;" so God is denied as by evil words, 

so by evil works. 
i^ The old writers tell us of a kind of people called 
j Onocentauri and Hippocentauri, which in one part 
I have the form of men, in another of beasts : what other 
I are they, who as men have a part rational, but as senstial 
i men are indeed bestial ? do they so much as bethink 
I themselves that man is a creature capable of happiness ? 
! If Adam were alive to name all things, as at the 
i beginning, is it likely he would call them Christians, 
' that is, a people dedicated and consecrated to the service 
• of Jesus Christ ? should we flatter ourselves, and so in 

the end deceive ourselves ? Why " there is no condemn- 
' ation to them that are in Christ ^ :" true, there is none to 

them, saith St. Paul, " which walk not after the flesh but 

i Titus i.t6. k Rom. viii. i, 3. 

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after the Spirit." Hath the blood of Christ cleansed us 
from all our sins ? then from the sin of security, saith 
St. Austin. It is not a bare historical faith that brings 
us by and by to Heaven, howsoever we walk on in the 
vanity of our minds. St. Paul saith, " We have not so 
learned Christ 1," as if our learning of Christ doth 
teach us another lesson than so. 

When we see a vineyard well manured and ordered, we 
by and by say it hath a good keeper ; shall we not say 
the same of a life well ordered ? It is a glory unto the 
vine when the branches are fruitful ; it is a joy unto the 
father when the son is dutiful : we are the branches, 
Christ is the vine ; we are His children, He is our 
Father ; " Father of all, Who is above all, and through 
all, and in us all m," Being Christians we are the Lord's 
heritage, and the Lord's heritage should be holy unto 
Him. Wherefore the name Christian, saith an ancient 
Father, is a name of justice, a name of goodness, a 
name of integrity, of patience, of humility, of inno- 
cency, of piety ; and he rightly beareth this name who 
never beareth malice in his heart, who followeth Christ's 
doctrine, and endeavoureth Christ's example, that blessed 
Pattern for imitation. 

The skilful painter having now proposed unto him- 
self some excellent work, all his study and care is to 
express in as lively manner as he can, the form laid out 
before him : the life of Christ our Saviour, according to 
His humanity, is laid out before us as a goodly table ; 
our best art and industry is required to work according 

1 Ephes. ir.90. m Epbes.iv. 6. 

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to this form, and to labour seriously until Christ be 
formed in us, as the Apostle speaketha ; that is, until 
some form or resemblance of Christ appear in us, who 
bear His name, for the feature of the father is often 
seen in the face and countenance of the child. 

Rude work, God knows, they make, who never 
either regard the pattern set before them, or any way 
respect the well ordering of the pencil, and so draw 
such monstrous and ugly forms, as themselves may be 
sorry to see. " Should I call him a Christian," saith 
one, " in whom there is no act of Christianity, no con- 
versation of justice, who oppresseth the miserable, who 
maketh many poor to make himself rich, whose mouth 
is polluted with untruths, and so forth ^ ?" ^Vhom do 
proud men fashion or shadow out less than the Son of 
God, Who humbled Himself, that we might be exalted ? 
Whom do revenging stomachs less resemble, than Him, 
Who meekly prayed for His enemies ? Christ saith, 
" Have I been so long with you, and have you not 
known Me'= ?" 

To call ourselves a little to a consideration of that 
which is comely, " An instinct there is," saith the phi- 
losopher, " even born with us, which is wont to move 
all men naturally, to desire to learn or attain know- 
ledge d :" now what learning more behoveful than that 
which instnicteth us to live in this world, as we may 
live eternally in the world to come ? " We often study 
many arts, sometimes only to know," saith St. Ber- 

a Gal. iv. 19. b S. Aug. de vita Christi. c John xiv. 9. 

d Arist. Metaphys. lib. I. chap. i. 

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nard, " which is curiosity; sometimes to be known, which 
is vanity ;" the art of arts, to live well, is little thought 
upon, much less studied. " We are born, yea, and we 
draw to our end too," as the Wise Man speaketh, 
" and shew no token of virtue." 

Sometimes by fits we praise devotion, but never 
settle ourselves to practise it ; now and then we cast 
out a little commendation of godliness, but we leave, 
■when -we come to the following of it, like dastardly 
soldiers, that can rail upon their enemies ; we speak 
against vices, but never take arms to encounter them : 
happily, we can talk of a Christian course, but in short 
time we are such strangers to all we spake of, as all 
comes to nothing, as if we only dreamed of something 
to be done, now all vanisheth ; in our best moods we 
seem to be willing to " Learn to Live" Christianly ; 
marry, we complain we have none to teach us, or if we 
have, Who are there, we say, in this world, so barren of 
piety, that by their example will come forth, and go 
before us ? It cannot be denied that we are as much, 
if not more, moved by good examples, as we are by 
good instructions ; but what say we to that Teacher, 
Who hath both examples and instructions ! 

" Then look we unto the life of Christ," saith St. 
Chrysostoni, "and we shall find it the philosophy of the 
simple, the nurse of young men, the meat of sti'ong 
men, the buckler of weak men, the physic of sick men, 
the book full of divine instructions, fit for all mene." 
" Those who apply themselves," saith St. Austin, 

c S. Aug. de discip. Christ. 

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" to any of the liberal arts or sciences, are wont to 
make choice of some especial author, whose precepts 
before other they observe and follow :" what better 
author than the Author of aU righteousness ? what 
better learning than that of which Christ is the Teacher ? 
His Church is the school, those which learn are Christ- 
ians, that which is learned is religion, and the end of 
this learning is to live eternally. Again, whereas ex- 
amples are likened unto living laws, what example 
more lively than the life of Christ ? It is said that the 
devout life of a certain holy man in Egypt in his time 
brought many others to observe the same holiness ; if 
the example of a good man could avail so much, what 
should the example of the Son of God do .' Wherefore 
no better form for direction to Christians in " Learning 
to Live," than evermore to have before them the life of 
Christ. " He never errs," saith St. Jerome, " who fol- 
loweth the Truth, Him let us follow Whom we all confess 
ought to be followed f." 

A^'herefore, in the setting down some plain and brief 
manner of " Learning to Live," methought there was 
no better method, than only to mention the most Divine 
actions of our Redeemer, that not so much my small 
labours, as the life of Christ might lay down unto well 
disposed Christians a form of " Learning to Live." 
The more ample and exquisite dilating hereof I leave 
to greater clerks, myself am content for this time being 
required whereof I might not deny, as before of 
" Learning to Die," so now to treat somewhat of 

I f S.Hieron. dc bene mod. virtut. 

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" Learning to Live ;" and in both to submit my im- 
perfections to better judgment, and my meaning to the 
honest minded, who are wont to take good meaning to 
the best : take, therefore, gentle reader, this treatise for 
our better Christian learning, to live Christianly as we 
ought, taken out of the hfe of Christ, the best pattern 
for imitation that ever this world had. 

To them who are passing through dark places, any 
light, be it never so little, may stand them in stead ; 
to him who wandereth in unknown ways, any small 
direction is acceptable, be it never so small, so it point 
him towards the way wherein he should pass : the tra- 
veller in a foreign country, meeting with somebody that 
speaks his natural language, though it be but harehly, 
yet it is some comfort unto him : we often pass in the 
darkness of our sensual desires, and are sometimes 
blinded in the mists of worldly vanities, we stray, we 
know not whither, any small light, the least direction, 
may in this case somewhat help us : " we are strangers 
in this world, and from homeg," as the Apostle speaketh, 
to hear somewhat of our native lang^iage, that is to say 
of Heaven and heavenly things, though it be in the 
meanest manner, yet it may somewhat affect us, espe- 
cially our aifections being homeward. 

Tobias had an angel to direct him in his journey 
forth and home ; when he was returned to his father's 
house, the angel left him : we have in our journey to 
Heaven more than an angel, yea the Lord of angels, 
Christ Jesus ; by His example of life to go before u.s, 

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and His grace within to strengthen us : if we follow 
Him, He will bring us safe and sound to His, and by 
them to our Father's house. Will He there leave us ? 
■No, He will there tarry and rejoice with us, and we 
with Him. If it be said, How should our weakness 
come near Him to Whom all things were possible by 
reason of His power ? the answer is, our good endea- 
vours are acceptable. If we fancy unto ourselves a 
secure estate in that we are called Christians, it is 
shewed we are far wide, and how if in devotion we 
should see our spiritual passage from the life of grace 
to the life of glory, and observe that happy Christian 
course which tendeth unto a thrice happy end, we are 
directed unto the virtues of Christ all along, from virtue 
to virtue. If we would know whereunto all His sayings 
and doings, His words and works did tend, it shall ap- 
pear in the aj)plication that all were for our instniction ; 
sometimes for the confirmation of our faith, and some- 
times also for the direction of our life. If we will 
hear the verity of the Resurrection confirmed, which is 
the stay of us Christians, we are led to the Resurrection 
of Christ ; if of our ascending, we are moved to con- 
sider the efficacy of His ; all these, as we confess with 
the mouth, and believe in the heart, so we must express 
in our lives, or our believing is no believing. It is said 
of 3Iary Magdalen, not that she professed much, but 
" she loved Christ much h ;" Faith and Hope are busy 
above in Heaven, Charity is there too, and yet is dili- 
gently here beneath on earth. 

h Lak« Til. 4. 

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Many Christians, I doubt not, there are in the 
world, who think within themselves, had they lived but 
near Christ their Saviour, when He was conversant 
here on earth, how willingly would they have left this 
world, with all the desires thereof, to have been His 
followers ! What love, Avhat service, with Mary, would 
they have done at His very feet, and with what affection ! 
Christ the treasure of our hearts is above in Heaven, 
His followers ai-e we on earth, while we obsei've His 
precepts, express His virtues, embrace His merits, extol 
His mercies : we do Him service, and service of love, 
when we are down in devotion at the footstool of His 
mediation, we honour Him Who hath so much honoured 
us with so high a title, for of Christ are we called 
Christians, to have part with Him, when our " light 
doth so shine before men, as we glorify our Father 
which is in Heaven' ;" which hght sheweth that our 
happiness is folded up in the bosom of hope. 

And this is briefly the sum, good Christian reader, 
of that which is mentioned more at large in the fol- 
lowing treatise of " Learning to Live," which learning 
only teacheth to become good men by the grace of God ; 
it now remaineth that we all apply ourselves to the 
practice thereof . Time will away. Hippocrates exhorting 
some to the study of that learning, which doth concern 
the health of the body, would have them make all pos- 
sible expedition they could ; his reason was, " Art is 
long, Ufe is short ;" the same may be said of that art 
which concerneth the health of the soul. Should we 

i Matt. V. i6. 

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wax white before we begin ? God forbid. Here we 
follow Christ in the state of grace, hereafter we shall 

' reign with Him in the state of glory. 

In the mean while plain dealing is best on all parts : 
" To a right faith," saith St. Austin, " let us join a 
right conversation^ ;" yea, and let us all join together 

I who are Christians, to meditate devoutly of the life of 
Christ ; for were the life of our Saviour more thought 

; upon, we should soon have a better world than we 
have, and men would more remember another world 
than ordinarily they do. " The birds of the air have 
nests, and the foxes have dens, but the Son of Man 
hath not where to lay His headl." " What is that ?" 
saith St. Austin, " many ambitious and soaring desires, 
subtle and ungodly devices, have nests and dens in our 
hearts ; but a remembrance of our Ijord Jesus, which 
should take peaceable possession of our souls, can have 
no entrance at all, in which case we rather want tears 
than cause of tears. 

To conclude, the special means in helping to reform 
what is amiss this way, as hath been now said, is that 
every well disposed Christian, who keeps a careful watch 
over his soul, and is desirous to live worthy of his 
calling here, until he come to live eternally, begin with 
the best attention his best devotion can yield, to take a 
diligent survey of the life of Christ, Whose soul-saving 
love is the loadstone of our hearts ; Whose sayings 
and doings are a law unto our lives, a lantern to light 
our steps, the guide to direct our journey, the compass 

k S. Augf. de ver. Apost. I Matt. viii. lo. 

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to Steer our ship, and, last of all, the judge for to end 
our controversies. As " the just live by faith m," so the 
just hve the life of faith ; now they live the life of 
grace, one day they shall live the life of glory. 

It is Christ and Christ alone, Who hath made a full 
and joyful satisfaction for our sins. 

" The God of patience and consolation," make us 
" followers of God, as dear children n ;" and " grant 
that we be like minded one towards another after the 
example of Christ Jesus. Amen"." 

It ought to be worthy of thy observation, good 
Christian reader, remember it is God's ; if otherwise, 
it is mine own. 


nEphes. v. i. 

C o 


Chapter i. — An exhortation moving every well- 
disposed Christian, desirous to live Christianly, often 
to meditate upon the most holy life of Christ. . P. i 

Chap. ii. — That the life of a Christian should be 
passed in this world in an holy and virtuous 
conversation 17 

Chap, hi That the end of a Christian life in 

following Christ, is endless felicity in the life to 
come 48 

Chap, iv That our best direction to live Christianly, 

is to follow the example of Christ our Savioiir, Who 
was not only a sacrifice for sin, but also a most per- 
fect pattern for imitation 60 

Chap, v — That this example of Christ's life ought 
ever to stand before the eyes of the minds of 
Christians 75 

Chap. vi. — The first virtue to be learned in the life 
of Christ is humility 85 

Chap, vu What we learn by Christ's leading into the 

wilderness, His fasting and temptation there. . . . 101 1 

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Chap. viii. — What we learn by Christ's great com- 
I passion towards the distressed state of man, and His 

I continual doing good in the world 128 


Chap. ix. — What we learn by Christ's little esteeming 

popularity and glory of the world 140 

Chap. x. — What we learn by Christ's continual labour 
and travails in the world 154 

Chap xi. — \^Tiat we learn by Christ's teaching the 
multitude, and His actions before He taught. ... 165 

Chap. xii. — What we learn by Christ's example in 
visiting the sick, feeding the hungry, and curing all 
that came unto Him 175 

Chap. xiii. — What we learn by the great meekness 
of our Lord Jesus, in bearing reproaches of the world, 
and by His peaceable conversation in the same . . 186 

Chap. xiv. — Of the name of Jesus 197 

Chap, xv.— What we learn by Jesus Christ His 
teaching His Disciples to pray, and of that divine 
form of prayer He taught them, and what we learn 
i thereby 208 

i Chap. xvi. — What we learn by Christ His often 

I praying, especially by His prayer at His agony in the 

garden 225 

Chap, xvii That Christians may take comfort amidst 

the calamities of this life, by that of our Saviour ; 
'' Let not your hearts be troubled," &c. John 
xiv. 1 241 

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CONTENTS, xxiii 

Chap, xviii. — What we leam by that of our Saviour 
exhorting all that would follow Him, to deny them- 
selves and take up their cross daily 254 

Chap. xix. — That Christian men ought to live in all 
orderly aud dutiful obedience to princes and govern- 
ors 269 

Chap. xx. — That Christians may lawfully enjoy earth- 
ly commodities, and possess riches, and how they 
should be affected towards them 279 

Chap. xxi. — In what sense Christ exhorteth to for- 
sake father and mother, and all for His sake, and 
what we learn thereby 294 

Chap. xxii. — What we learn by Christ His many 
Miracles mentioned in the Gospel 303 

(hap. xxiii. — What we learn by the divine wis- 
dom of Christ in answering His adversaries, and 
others that came unto Him 317 

Chap. xxiv. — What we learn by onr Saviour's acts, 
done upon the Sabbaths and other festival days. . 327 

Chap. xxv. — What we learn by Christ His weeping 
over Jenisalem' 343 

Chap. xxvi. — That Christians ought often to meditate 
of our Saviour Christ His Passion, and how this doth 
serve for the comfort of our faith, and serve also for 
the instruction of our lives 354 

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Chap, xxvii. — How Christ's Resurrection from the 
dead, doth much strengthen our Christian faith, and 
serre also for the instruction of our Christian 
lives 388 

Chap, xxviii. — Of Christ's Ascension into Heaven, and 
how many good instructions we learn thereby . . 405 

Chap, xxix Of the coming down of the Holy Ghost, 

and how we should in all Christian manner entertain 
this divine Spirit our heavenly Teacher, to live 
holily 418 

Chap. xxx. — That a remembrance of Christ His se- 
cond coming to judgment, ought to move every well- 
disposed Christian seriously to apply himself to this 
lesson of learning to live while he is here, that 
it may go well with him when he is departed 
hence 432 


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An exhortation moving every well^isposed Christian, 

desirous to hve Christianly, often to meditate 

upon the most holy life of Christ. 

W HILST I was musing," saith the 
prophet David, " the fire kindled a ;" What 
was this fire, but the love of God ? which fire 
should never decay at the Altar of the Lord, 
to wit, the heart of man ; What was this mus- 
ing, but devout meditation, the bellows to 
blow the sparks and kindle the flame of | 
David's affection ? which afi^ection bred desire, 

a Ps. xxxix. 3. 


o c 


desire caused love, love moved delight, delight 
brought forth labour. " Lord," saith he, 
" what love have I unto thy statutes ? All the 
day long is my study in them^." 

Hereby we see that amongst the exercises 
of a Godly life, there is none that is wont 
more to elevate or lift up the mind of man to 
a higher degree of perfection, than devout 
meditation. In devout meditation, what doth 
more move man to love God, than the revolv- 
ing of His benefits ? Amongst these benefits, 
was there ever any comparable to that, " So 
God loved the world, that He gave His only 
begotten Son ?" but how gave He Him ? "to 
be unto men both a sacrifice for sin, and also 
an ensample of lifec." 

So then, to meditate of the life of Him, by 
Whom we have eternal life, is the very life of 
Ufe. To meditate, I say, of His life and man- 
ner of living, Who is both the way, and by 
His doctrine and example, such a director as 
wiU safely conduct unto the end of the way : 

b Ps. cxix. 97. c John iii. 16. 


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a subject then it is, worthy of our best, and 
best disposed consideration. 

" Amongst Ghostly exercises," saith Bona- 
venture, " what is more profitable or necessary 
to attain perfection, than a due beholding of 
the life of Christ ? What is there found that 
can more arm us against the vanities and al- 
lurements of the world, or the tribulations and 
adversities of the same, than continually to 
have before the eyes of our mind, the memory 
of His doings and sayings, of His suffering 
and satisfaction made for the redemption of 
our souls ?" 

n. In which Christian meditation, so many 
unlooked for motives to set our love upon the 
love of God do occur, as they may seem not 
only infallible testimonies of grace present, 
but after a sort, gladsome presages to the be- 
lieving heart, even of future glory that is to 
come. Abraham saw Christ *1, when the Co- 
venant was but promised, and yet it rejoiced 
his heart : we see him now the Covenant is 
performed, and shall we not rejoice ? Simeon 

d John viil. 56, 

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o^ — c 


was a happy man who saw Him with the eyes 
of his bodyc, and the faithful are happy too, 
who see Him with the eyes of the soul. 

HI. " Every man," saith Seneca, " that 
listeth to apply himself to reading and medi- 
tation, may have private conference with Zeno, 
Pythagoras, Aristotle, Theophrastus, and other 
authors of good arts ; he shall find them all at 
leisure to commune with him'." But a thou- 
sand times more truly may it be said of the 
devout soul, that she may daily commune and 
converse with Jesus Christ the Author of 
her happiness, in reading the holy history of 
His most blessed life. 

IV. Is it not more acceptable to see God 
with the shepherds at Bethlehem when the 
Angels singg, than \Nath Moses, when he was 
flaming in the fire bush^, to which he might 
not come near ? To hear Him upon Mount 
Tabor preach blessedness after blessedness', 
than upon Mount Sinai, when through hght- 
ning and thundering J it was present death for 

e Luke ii. 30. E f Seneca de Brevitate Vitse. g Luke ii. 14. 
h Exod. iii. 2. i Matt. v. 3 — 11. j Exod. xix. 18. 


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the people to approach ? It was spoken as a 
testimony of the love of God unto the Is- 
raelites ; Did ever people hear the voice of 
God speaking out of the midst of a fire '^ ? but 
this is a greater ; Did ever people hear Him 
before^speak by His own Son ' ? 

V. Ought we not often in soul to go with the 
wise men to Bethlehem"^, by the direction of 
the star of grace", and there fall down and 
worship the little King ; there offer the gold of 
charity, the frankincense of devotion, the 
myrrh of penitency ; and return, not by cruel 
Herod, or by troubled Jerusalem, but another 
way, a better way, unto our long and happy 

How should we seek Him sorrowing with 
blessed Mary", and never leave seeking until 
we find him ! How should we accompany 
Him with the Apostles, beholding Him doing 
wonderful miracles ! How should we, with 
the women, follow Him unto the cross, P and 
there condole His most bitter, yet blessed 

k Deut. iv. 12. 1 Heb. i. a. m Luke ii. 15. 
n Matt. ii. II. o Luke ii. 48. p Luke xxiii. 49- 

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Passion ! How should we descend in medita- 
tion whither He descended ; rise early with 
Mary Magdalene, come to the sepulchre and 
see His resurrection 1 ! with the men of 
Galilee, wonder at His ascension up into 
Heaven I", and with joyful admiration expect 
His coming again in the same form He as- 
cended, with power and glory ! last of all, 
How should we with the disciples continue in 
prayer, tarry at Jerusalem, the Church or 
vision of peace, waiting for the coming of the 
Holy Ghost from above ! 

VI. The more we love Christ, the more we 
meditate of His love ; where our treasure is, 
that is, the thing we most affect, there are 
also the cogitations of our hearts. What 
greater treasure than Jesus Christ, the very 
mine where do lie millions of treasure, the 
great stock employed for our use ! On whom 
should we rather bestow our hearts than upon 
Him who is the joy of our hearts ? or where- 
to ought we rather to employ our best labours, 
than where the best reward of our labours is 

q Lukexxiv. I. r Actsi. ii. 

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had ? and to hold Him, as Jacob did the Angel, 
not letting Him go until He bless us. 

VII. But to come to that which concerns 
the direction of Christian life. Where in the 
whole world shalt thou sooner find true hu- 
miUty, "perfect charity, obedience, patience 
without example, fervent prayer, with many 
coadjoined and allied virtues, than in the life 
of Him who was the Lord of virtues ? Con- 
sider how humbly He behaved Himself in the 
world, how fellow-hke with His apostles, how 
merciful He was to the poor and distressed, 
who seemed His special family. He despised 
none, although lepers. He flattered none, 
though never so glorious. Free He was from 
the distracting cares of the world. Whose care 
was His Father's willr and man's good. How 
patient was He in bearing reproaches, how 
gentle in His answers, thereby to cure and 
salve the envy of His adversaries. 

" Thou hast, O Christian soul," saith 
St. Austin, " in the life of Christ s a most 
heavenly medicine to help all thy defects. 

T John xvii. 4. s S. Aug, de Verb. Dom. 

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What pride is there that His humiKty doth 
not abase? What anger that His gentleness 
doth not lenify ? What covetousness that His 
poverty doth not salve ? What heart is there 
so benumbed, that His love doth not inflame ? 
In every way, here we behold what to imitate, 
what to admire ; here we learn what to fly, 
what to follow. 

" Where shall we find the misery of man 
better salved, the goodness of God more 
manifested, love and grace more* enlarged, 
than in meditating of the life of Christ ? 
Where is there in the world a mean to avoid 
sin, better learned than in His hfe. Who was 
without sin ?" 

Vni. The loving captain would that the 
soldier sometimes behold the wounds received in 
his behalf, thereby to take comfort and courage. 
The Martyr, calling to mind Christ crucified 
upon the cross, endureth trying and frying 
j flames of greatest persecutions so patiently, 
as if, the soul exiled from the body by a divine 
meditation, both body and soul were in part be- 
come senseless, and made to hve, not where 

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they live but where they love, that is to say, 
in Christ. 

This made the holy men of God so full of de- 
votion, so great despisers of the world as they 
were ; their chiefest care was to care for a 
time to come, their continual meditation was 
the mystery' of human redemption and the ac- 
complishment of their hope in another world. 
Festus thought St. Paul had over studied him- 
self*, when the Apostle's mind was fixed upon 
the greatest mystery of the Passion and Re- 
surrection and judgment to come. Had Festus 
known the depth of this, he would have 
thought the Apostle to have been learned in- 
deed, and himself might have been learned 
also unto salvation. 

Again, when we behold Christ in His 
Passion, we see innocency suffering for sin, 
humility enduring torment for pride, right- 
eousness for unrighteousness. What charity 
was that, which amidst so many pains, be- 
sought God for pardon to the causers and 
actors of His woe ! What silence was that, 

I t Acts zxvi. 24. 

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which unto false accusers answered nothing u ! 
What love was that, which was prodigal of 
life for His friends, nay, for His very enemies ! 
Never was there any such love, as the love of 
the Son of God. 

IX. We should often call to mind the life 
of Christ. When labours and troubles come, 
when by calamities we feel that we have of- 
fended, then we fall to comparison ; when we 
endure hunger, we ought to think of Christ's 
fasting ; when we are tempted, we ought to 
think of His leading into the wilderness to be 
tempted ; when we suffer reproaches, we 
ought to call to mind His mild suffering of 
reproaches, and lift up our hearts to Heaven, 
and our souls to Him Who bare our infirmities 
and therefore we hope will in mercy respect 
the case of the miserable, of Whom we may 
say with the prophet, " Whom have we in 
Heaven but Thee'^." 

X. Some are not a little delighted to read 
the lives of the ancient worthies of the world, 
of Julius Caesar, Scipio, Alexander, and such 

u John xix. 9. v Ps. Ixxiii. 25. 24. 

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other ; but these may sooner delight the fancy 
than instruct the soul. Come we to the life 
of Christ, Solomon's wisdom was but igno- 
rance in respect of His ; Samson's strength, 
but weakness ; Aszael's swiftness, dull slow- 
ness ; Methuselah's age, not a day, compared 
with His eternity, or that felicity which He 
giveth to His people ; aU their glory was but 
froth, all their pomp was but misery to His 
glory. Who vanquished when He was conquer- 
ed, and overcame death when He suffered 
death, subduing the prince of darkness with 
all his power, and with a few mean men made 
a mighty conquest over the whole world, by 
a force in outward show, clean contrary to all 
victory ; viz. by His word, which in the sight 
of the world seemed feebleness. 

What heart is not moved at His marvellous 
works done for the children of men? Who 
would not celebrate unto the Lord a sweet 
sabbath of meditation, and hither bring all 
his prayers and praises ? surely we do little 
for Him, who hath done so much for us, 
if we keep not at least a remembrance of so 

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many graces and of so many mercies bestowed 
upon us ! Should we be weary to meditate of 
His life. Who was not weary to do and suffer 
so many things to restore us to eternal life ? 

XL God saith, "My delight is to be with 
the sons of men."x And the godly say, Our 
delight is to be with the Son of God. 
St. Jerome writeth of certain holy women so 
devoted unto divine meditation, " that flesh," 
saith he, "almost forgat it was fleshy.-" 
they did so well in the contemplation of 
Jesus Christ, that they seemed in place only 
remote, but in afliection to join with the Holy 
company of heaven, there beholding in that 
splendid theatre, the King of kings sitting 
under the state of glory. 

The Athenians erected a place called Asy- 
lum, whither the poor and distressed repairing 
might find refuge. How God hath exalted 
our Lord Jesus unto the right hand of His 
throne in glory, and there for His sake erected 
an Asylum of grace, whither all sorrowful and 
afliicted minds repairing, may plead privilege 

X Prov. vUi. ji. y S. Hiero. In Regula Sanct. 

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and satisfaction against sin, hell, death, and 
the devil, faith in Him doth tell us as much. 
When the accuser of the brethren doth lay a 
remembrance of their sins unto the charge of 
God's chosen, and thereby seeketh to cast 
them down by despair ; by and by they fly to 
meditate of Christ His love, and how all suf- 
ficient a sacrifice He was for the satisfaction of 
their sins, and how ready He is to embrace in 
the arms of His mercy, and cover under the 
shadow of His wings, aU that cry and come 
unto Him. Christ is called a rock^, and in 
times of distress men were wont to hide them- 
selves in rocks. 

The loaves which Christ took in feeding a 
multitude were but few in number » ; but when 
He brake them and His disciples distributed 
them, they did exceedingly increase and multiply. 

The life of Christ, when at first we consider 
the same, it seems not so much ; but falhng to 
meditate thereupon, and to distribute it, as it 
were, amongst faithful believers, it increaseth 
so wonderfully, as we can truly say with them 

z I Cor. X. 4. a Mark vi. 41 : Luke ix. i6. 

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in the Gospel, " We never saw it after this 
fashion;"^ in effect, we never thought it so 

XIII. Last of all, how mindful, I pray you, 
should we be to meditate of Christ, not only 
in respect of the time present, but chiefly for 
the time to come ! This was in St. Paul's 
thought, when he spoke of his departing hence, 
desiring to be dissolved and to be with Christ. 
Jacob leaving the world, his mind was upon 
Shiloh, or on Him Whom God would send, 
when He said, " Lord, I will wait for Thy sal- 

XIV, The Law was a shadow of good to 
come, this good was Christ ; when the sun is 
behind, the shadow is before ; when the sun is 
before, the shadow is behind : so was it in 
Christ, to them of old this Sun was behind, 
and therefore the Law or shadow was before ; 
to us, under grace, the Sun is before ; and so 
now the ceremonies of the Law, these shadows 
are behind, yea, they are vanished away ! 
Joshua succeeded Moses, Christ the Law; 

b Mark ii. 12. 1 

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Moses dies, Joshua leads the people ; Joshua 
brings the people over Jordan, which Moses 
could not do : God took Moses into a 
better Canaan. The fathers did eat manna 
in the desert^ ; we have the bread which came 
down from Heaven. " The Old Testament," 
saith St. Austin, " it was the New involved ;" 
the New, it is " the Old explained ;" in the 
nineteenth of St. Luke, those that went before 
and they that followed after, they all sang, 
" Hosanna to the Son of God ''." 

XV. In blessing their posterities, the Patri- 
archs mentioned the promised seed ; so, com- 
forting the distressed, the Prophets foretold 
the Saviour to come. All their solemn Sacri- 
fices were but figures and signs of some 
excellent subject ; their many hymns and di- 
vine songs were rejoicings at His coming 
before He came ; in their highest devotions, 
nothing was more mentioned than that God 
would respect His people, and Abraham to 
whom in mercy the multiplying of the same 
mercy by the promised offspring was raen- 

c John vi. 31. d Mark xi. 9. 

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tioned. So by this we see, the faithful all 
along minded nothing more than Him, in Whom 
all the nations of the earth should be blessed. 

XVI. For believers under grace surely they 
ought to be so addicted to meditate of Him who 
wrought the work of their redemption, who 
as they are conducted in their spiritual journey 
to the Holy Land in Heaven, not by a pillar of 
cloude, as the Israelites, but by Him that sits 
above the clouds ; so their hearts should be 
replenished with an incessant revolving of His 
love, seeing their faith is confirmed by a con- 
tinual consideration of His merits ; their hope 
by a remembrance of His promises ; their 
thankfulness by calling to mind His benefits ; 
their fortitude by contemplation of His assist- 
ance ; their lives directed by His life, who was 
the mirror of the world for perfection and 
true holiness ; and the prophet Isaiah saith, 
" This is the way, walk ye in it^." 

e Exod. xiii. 21. f Isaiah xxx, 3t. 



That the life of a Christian should be passed in this 
world in an holy and virtuous conversation. 

" Therefore," saith St. Austin, " hath 
God given unto every one of us, of Christ to 
be called a Christian, that in our name we 
should evermore retain a perpetual memory of 
Christ, from Whom we are called Christians." 
He is not a branch that draweth not some 
juice from the root, nor he a Christian that 
hath not some resemblance of Christ, from 
whom he is called a Christian. It is the man- 
ner of princes and governors forthwith upon 
their investitures to places of greatest dignity, 
seriously to recount with themselves to what 
authority amongst men God hath called them, 
what to do, how to govern, and in conclusion 
which way to demean themselves like them- 
selves ; that is to say, answerable unto their 


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name and calling. This care we find to have 
been in king Solomon", who in regard of the 
dignity whereunto God had called him, be- 
sought God, before riches and honour, to give 
him an understanding heart. No less care 
should every Christian man and woman have, 
whom God hath in mercy called to the estate 
of grace, a calling of excellency ; no less care, 
1 say, should they have of their conversation, 
to sit down and consider for what cause they 
were redeemed, to what end, what will one 
day be required at their hands, upon His re- 
turn, that did send them hither, and preserved 
them whilst they were here. 

II. When Naaman the Syrian was healed 
of his leprosy li by the power of Almighty God, 
he was so moved to acknowledge this benefit 
well, that while the knees of his body might 
bow in the house of Rimmon, a false God, yet 
when he came there he made a solemn vow 
the knees of his soul should bend to the true 
God, whom he perceived to have done him 

g 2 Chron. i. lo. h 2 Kings v. i8. 

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When Peter's wife's mother perceived she 
was cured of her fever, she rose up and min- 
istered unto Christ'. When the people saw 
the care of Joshua, which he undertook to 
bring them into the land of Canaan, they all 
said as it were with one heart, " O Joshua, all 
that thou commandest we will do, and whither- 
soever thou sendest us, we will go'^." We 
have received greater cure than Naaman, or 
than Peter's wife's mother did : some bending 
of our hearts, some ministering unto Christ 
should be remembered, and let our Joshua 
have His due, Who leads us unto that ever- 
lasting Canaan, that is above in Heaven. 

n. When Zacharias mentioned the love of 
God, what He had done in visiting and re- 
deeming His people', in raising them up a 
mighty salvation, in delivering them from the 
hands of their enemies, he consequently an- 
nexed the end of all, and what they should now 
do to God; to wit, "serve Him in hohness 
and righteousness all the days of their life"'." 

i Matt. viil. ij. k .Toshua i. i6. 1 Luke i. 68, 69. 

m Luke i. ^j. I 

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The Apostle St. Paul sheweth us this reflex 
of duty arising from mercy received, in ex- 
press words ; " The grace of God," saith he, 
" hath appeared, that bringeth salvation unto 
all, and teacheth us that we should deny un- 
godliness and worldly lusts, that we shoxild 
live soberly, and righteously, and godly in this 
present world ; looking for the blessed appear- 
ance of the glory of the Mighty God, and of 
our Saviour Jesus Christ^;" thereby shewing 
our first entrance into grace, and therewith 
the works of grace, and then in order the 
appearance of glory. The works of grace, 
negatively and affirmatively ; negatively, 
teaching to deny ungodliness : affirmatively, 
teaching to live soberly to ourselves, right- 
eously to our neighbour, hohly to God. For 
what else doth grace require, but the works of 
grace ? therefore we beseech God, that we 
fall not among thieves, as the man that passed 
between Jerusalem and Jericho °, which would 
spoil us of this precious garment, and the true 
use thereof. " Lord," saith David, " keep Thy 

n Titus ii. 11-13. o Luke x. 30. 

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servant from presumptuous sins, that they get 
not the dominion over mef." 

III. What, should the children of light 
have to do with the vporks of darkness ^i ? 
What, should Christians walk according to the 
flesh"", who are by Christ their Redeemer, re- 
generate and bom anew, for to live according 
to the Spirit ? " Alexander, " saith Quintus 
Curtius, " willed that the Grecians and the 
Barbarians should be no longer distinguished 
by garments ; but let Grecians, " said he, 
" be known by their virtues, and Barbarians 
by their vices." " It is no marvel," saith 
St. Chrysostom, " that Grecians live im- 
purely, but that Christians should live so, who 
are partakers of so great graces of God, this 
is worse ; yea, worst of all, yea, intolerable." 

IV. When Almighty God had brought His 
people from the oppression of Pharaoh, and 
that they were now towards a land which 
should flow with milk and honey, Moses 
soberly adviseth the people after this manner ; 
" And now Israel, what doth the Lord require 

p Ps. xix. 13. q Luke xvi. 8. r Rom. xiil. i». 

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of thee ?" and therefore He doth require 
somewhat of thee, " even that thou serve 
Hims." If He be thy God, then will He 
have thy worship. He is thine in mercy, but 
thou His in duty. 

St. Peter adviseth the dispersed Jews and 
converted Christians to walk as the children 
of God, why ? " because God had called them 
to an admirable light*," St. Paul, resembhng 
the time of the Law unto the night, by reason 
of the dark mists and figures thereof; " the 
night is past, the day is come nigh'^," and the 
state of grace unto the day, which is a light- 
some time : "let us cast away," saith the apostle, 
" the works of darkness, and put on the armour 
of light." All which as it inferreth a dignity 
in that we are called, so withal a duty that is 
required of us ; a small sm in the world, is 
notwithstanding great, in one professing 

St. Bernard thought it a thing prodigious in 
nature " for any one to have the first place, 

8 Deut. s. la. t i Pet. ii. 9. u Rom. xiii. u. 

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and the lowest life ; a high calling, and some 
abject course of living ; because the calling to 
place of dignity, doth challenge unto itself 
greater sincerity of life than is looked for in 
others of meaner condition^." St. John saith, 
'• He that saith he abideth in Christ, ought to 
walk, as He walked v;" look whom any one doth 
serve, his livery he weareth to the view of the 
world : what a madness is it for any to boast 
himself to be a Christian, and to tread under 
his feet Christ his precepts ,'' " What profiteth 
thee," saith St. Austin, " to be called the 
thing thou art notw ?" To bear the title of a 
Christian, and to be in action nothing less ? 
To be a Christian in name, but not in deed ? 
To be a nominal, and not a real ; to seem, 
and not to be ? To have the voice of Jacob, 
but the hands of Esau ; one thing in show, 
but another in substance ? " What ! dost 
thou," saith St. Cyprian, "rush in with a blind 
heady zeal, thou knowest not whither nor 
how, extinguishing peace and charity, the true 

V Bernard, lib. 2. Consid. ad Eugenium. 
w I John ii. 6. x S. Aug. de Vita Christ. 

o o 



lights of a Christian life ? Certainly vices 
are as blemishes in the face of Christian 
profession. Zeal without knowledge is a blind 
sacrifice, and knowledge without zeal is a 
maimed sacrifice; neither blind nor maimed 
should be offered to God. Let Christians be 
what indeed they be, an holy people to God. 
What is a Christian ? sure a disciple of Christ, 
than Whom there is not a greater teacher. 
What is a Christian ? one who thinketh rightly 
of God, worshipping Him truly, Whom truly 
he knoweth. What is a Christian ? one than 
whom none is more laborious to serve God in 
the world, none more happy in the world 
to come. 

V. Aulus Fulvius perceiving his son gotten 
upon the wings of pride, and associating 
himself with Catiline, that fireband of the 
commonwealth, comes and takes him aside, 
and schools him after this manner ; " Thou 
unthrift, have I brought thee up for such 
an end ?" 

When we find our affections inclining to 
foul desires, let us say unto our souls as Aulus I 

o -o 

5 o 


Fulvius said unto his son, " Is this the end why 
God hath given us our being, and well being ? 
Were we redeemed from sin to continue in 
the lusts thereof? Were we freed from the 
servitude of the world, to become servants 
again to so bad a lord ? Why were we re- 
deemed unto good works ? Should so great 
a price bestowed for us be cast away ? God 
forbid ! Let us consider that two principal 
parts there are of our Christian profession, 
faith and good life ; faith is the foundation, 
good life is the building that is laid upon this 

Let us call to mind our adoption, whereby 
we cry, " Abba, Father :" if God be our 
Father, then must we remember what He re- 
quireth, " Be ye Holy, for I am Holy," saith 
God^ : the duty o the child is the father's 
honour. We are resembled unto the branches, 
and Christ unto the vine ; " every branch that 
beareth not fruit," that is, good life, " the 
husbandman," that is God, " taketh it 

X : Pet. i. i6. 


o c 


awayy." It is a glory to the vine, when the 
branches bring forth good grapes. 

We are compared unto fruitful trees " plant- 
ed by the waters z," or pleasant streams of 
God's graces, and therefore should bring forth 
fruit in due season. We may remember the 
curse of the fig-tree that bare leaves only, 
some show only of fruitj and that sentence 
denounced against the other tree that bare no 
fruit at alia ; «« ^qJ n^^ algo the axe is laid 
to the root of the trees, every tree that bringeth 
not forth good fruit shall be cut down and cast 
into the fire^." The axe, death ; the cutting 
down, the execution of justice ; the casting 
into the fire, the sentence of judgment. 
" And now," there will be a now ; " the axe," 
not a rod, " to the root," not to the branches, 
" cast into the fire," and so there is somewhat 
more than a cutting dov^n. 

Daniel said unto Nebuchadnezzar, which 
John the Baptist in effect said unto every one 
that is fruitless, " This tree is thyself c :" but 

y John XV. a. z Ps.i. 3. a Matt. xxi. 19. 
b Luke iii. 9, c Dan. iv. aa. 

o_ c 



for the good tree which bringeth forth good 
fruit '^, it shall be Hke the green olive, planted 
by the house of God. " Such a one," saith 
Jeremiah, " shall be as a tree that spreadeth 
out her roots by the river, and shall not feel 
when the heat cometh, but her leaf shall be 
green ; and shall not care for the year of 
drought, neither shall cease from yielding 
fruit^." But the end of the fruitless trees are 
to be cut down. 

And thus, as the negligent are resembled to 
a barren heath, which, though it hath heat 
and moisture from above, remaineth still bare ; 
or to trees twice dead and plucked up by the 
roots ; as vain professors are compared unto 
trees which bear leaves, or at least fruit goodly 
and pleasant to the eye, like the apples of 
Gomorrah, which are gone so soon as you touch 
them : so are the religious and truly devoted 
to the worship of God most fitly likened to 
good and fruitful trees ^ grafted upon the true 
stock Christ Jesus Himself, planted in that 
vineyard whose keeper is the Lord of Hosts, 

d Matt. vii. 17. e Jer. xvii. 8. f Isaiah v. i. 

O O 

o o 


and Who looks for at their hands better than 
wild grapes. 

VI. In the Acts of the Apostles, we read 
that the disciples at Antioch were the first 
who were called Christians^, a name of great 
sanctity, taken from anointing, a ceremony 
used among the ancient people of God, upon 
none but those whom they counted holy, and 
had an holy calling, as Kings, Priests, Prophets ; 
£md therefore Christians should be as John the 
Baptist, whose name was holy, whose teaching 
was holy, whose life was holy, all agreeing in 
one. " He was a burning hght, not only 
burning," saith St. Bernard, " as zealous in 
fervency, but a light also as conspicuous in 
charity h." 

" But whence," saith Isidore, " have we this 
title ? even from Christ are we called Christ- 
ians, surely a great prerogative ; He hath 
graced us with His own name, cleansed us 
with His own blood, and called us to be a 
people holy unto Himself." 

The apostle saith, " That we are bought, or 

g Acts xi. 26. h Bemardus in nat. John. 

o — c 

,_ o 


redeemed with a price' ;" if it be so, then are 
we His, Who hath paid our ransom, and con- 
sequently are bound to do His will. Who 
hath bought our freedom. " We are not 
debtors," saith he, " to the flesh'* ;" to whom 
then ? We are debtors unto the Spirit. 
Sarah saw Ishmael playing with Isaac, and 
she said unto Abraham, " Put away the bond 
woman with her son^;" it is not safe for the 
soul to be dallying with the flesh ; cast ofi^ the 
bond woman and her oflfspring™, or desires, 
the playing of Ishmael with Isaac, which the 
Holy Ghost by the apostles, calleth a perse- 
cution. One saith, " this body of ours will 
not let us be sight philosophers ;" but sure it 
is, this corrupt nature of ours, unless we did 
repress the aff*ectlons thereof, it would not 
sufier or permit us to be right Christians. 

" There is a serpent within us," saith Maca- 
rlus, " that will entice with an argument a 
jucundo'^ ;" the forbidden tree is most fair, 
forbidden pleasures, forbidden ways are most 

i I Cor. vi. 20. k Rom. viii. 12. 1 Gen. xxi. 10. 
m Gal. iv. 29, 30. n Macar. Horn. 


o ^ 


delightful. " Had we," saith St. Bernard, 
" stood by, when Adam was between the per- 
suasion of his wife, and the precept of his 
God; when one said, Adam eat, and the 
other, Adam thou shalt not eat, would we 
not have cried out and said, O Adam, take 
heed what thou doest, the woman is deceived ! 
The counsel we would have given to Adam let 
us apply to ourselves, and never hearken to the 
counsel of the flesh, which as another Eve, will 
draw us from our obedience to our God." 

The apostle calleth the desires of the flesh 
deceivableo, because they deceive ; and where- 
as other sins are mentioned by one name, this 
of the flesh is mentioned by many ; as adul- 
tery, fornication, uncleanness, wantonness ; all 
these shew how vile it is. It is said, fly from 
sin as from a serpent, but of all sins fly forni- 
cation, saith the Holy Ghost; for this serpent 
stingeth to death. He that will eat so often 
as he is tempted by hunger, he that strikes so 
often as he is tempted by ire, he that will 
commit the sin of fornication so often as he is 

o Ephes. iv. 22. 

o c 



tempted by ill motions, what hath he I say, 
not of a Christian man, but of a man, except 
the name ? to follow sensuality, it is plainly 

! bestial. 

I Two things there are carefully to be con- 
served of a Christian, his conscience and his 
report ; his conscience to God, and his report 
to men. " It is not sufficient," saith St. Je- 
rome, " to say, I care not for report, so I have 

! a good conscience." The apostle gives an- 
other rule ; " Procure things honest before 
God, and in the sight of aU men." 

VII. But is it credible that Christian pro- 
fession should ever put on masking attire, and 
play her part on the stage ? putting on " the 
cloke of maUciousness," as St. Peter speaketh. 
Or that those who bear the name of Christ- 
ians, should endeavour like jugglers, to cast 
a mist before the eyes of the simple, work 
dissimulation in so fine a web, cast such a 
gloss upon corrupt dealing, as if all were 
Holy ; like hot meteors in air, which shoot and 
shew like stars, but are indeed nothing less. 

I For these, deceive men they mav, God they 

) : o 

o c 


cannot ; nay, they may one day find they 
deceive themselves. If they spend one hour 
or two now and then in godly exercises, 
though all the week after they live in con- 
tention and envy, they think themselves good 
Christians, these have little of Christianity but 
the name. 

In the comedy of Menander, there is a 
Hercules, but not true Hercules : in the 
course of the world there is a Herod that 
pretends worsliip, but intends the life of an 
innocent babe : there is an Ahab that pro- 
claims a fastP, thereby to compass Naboth's 
vineyard : but all is not gold that glitters. 

When children see a lively resemblance, 
they often think it some living creature, wise 
men know it to be but a picture ; much more 
God, He who knoweth all things, knoweth 
what this is. 

" He is not a Jew, which is outwardly a 
Jew; neither is that Circumcision, which is out- 
wardly in the show : but he is a Jew, which is 
one within; and the circumcision is of the 

p I Kings xxi. il. 

o — c 

) o 


heart, not in the letter ; whose praise is not of 
men, but of Godi." One man discemeth 
another by his habit, but God by his heart. 

" The ark," saith Origen, " was it pitched 
without only ? No, but within and without >"." 
" The king's daughter," saith the Psalmist, 
" was glorious ;" was this glory outward ? 
No, she was glorious within. The coat of 
Christ was without seam ; the conversation of 
Christians should be plain and honest, without 
dissimulation, or counterfeit shows of holiness. 
" Behold/' saith our Saviour of Nathaniel, " a 
true Israehte, in whom there is no guile," for 
behold a true Christian ! 

Let vain boasters talk of profession so long 
as they will, and make religion, as they do, a 
mere talk : unless they shew devotion to God, 
humble and charitable behaviour towards men, 
obedience to rulers, love to their equals, and 
meekness to their inferiors, are they right 
Christians ? No, verily. When one ill affected, 
was now about to be salving his sore fingers, 
a certain physician perceiving by his coun- i 

p Rom. ii. a8, 39. r Origen in Numb. ; 

:, o 

O — 


tenance his liver was corrupt, " My friend," 
quoth he, " first seek to salve what is amiss 

VIII. At the end of the day shall it be 
said. Call those discoursers .'' No, " Call the 
labourers ; give them the penny «." St. James 
saith, "Shew me thy faith by thy works*:" 
I am a mortal man, and cannot search the 
heart. Hast thou faith ? let me see it by thy 
actions of life. Is it a lively faith ? Why, 
where life is, there motion is ; motion is the 
sign of a living body, and holy conversation 
of a living soul. It was said indeed unto him 
that came unto the marriage, " Friend^," 
but if we mark the sequel, it was in effect 
said, friend in profession, but nothing so in 
action ; in name, but not in nature ; " how 
earnest thou in hither, not having a wedding 
garment ?" " This wedding garment," saith 
St. Austin, " is charity." 

" When you see," saith St. Chrysostom, 
" the leaves withered, you may guess the tree 

s Matt. XX. 8. t Jamesii. 38. u Matt, xxii, I2. 




is not sound at the root^." Are we not rooted 
1 in faith ? the bud, the leaf, the flower, the fruit, 

j is all from the root. The fire, so long as it is 
t fire, it hath heat ; and faith, so long as it is 
j faith, it hath effects. Wherefore we must take 
heed that we deal not with our holy calling, as 
Hanum did with David's servants, when he 
disguised them, and cut their garments in the 
middest.^ Let us not separate that which 
God hath joined together, a good profession, 
and a good conversation ; good learning, smd 
good living. A man, saith Syrac, may be 
known by his look, and one that hath under- 
standing, may be perceived by his gesture ; 
nay, a man's garment, and therefore much 
more his life, declares what he is. 

IX. Look we into the lives of the former 
Christians, whose remembrance we honour in 
our very thoughts, and whose virtues we can- 
not but admire ; if we read how they spent 
their time, we shall find that their whole 
course was a continual exercise of piety ; 
they were just in promise, they needed no 

V S. Chrysost. in oper. imperfect, hom. iii. w 3 Sam. x. 4. 



o c 


other surety but their word ; they were moder- 
ate in diet, plain in attire, keeping a decorum 
in all their actions. They did not only with 
Simeon see Christ with their eyes, but also 
take Him up with them in their hands, 
and carry Him about in their lives : we 
are, for the most part, Christians in show, 
they were Christians indeed : we outwardly 
profess somewhat, but there is a heart within 
meaneth nothing less ; and yet we will be 
called Christians : they inwardly and out- 
wardly were the same. He said well, that said 
it, they were happy in respect of us, who 
received with humility one unifonn faith ; upon 
this foundation they did build gold and pre- 
cious stones, that is, actions of good life : we 
are still hampering and hammering about the 
very foundation, and never settle ourselves to 

TertulUan, setting down the hardest censure 
which the Christians in his time had from i 
their greatest adversaries, saith, "that ex-- 
cepting they would not sacrifice unto their f 
idols, their holiness was such, as it made their r 

o < 

) — o 


verv persecutors to stand amazed at them and 
to cry out. What a misery is this, that we are 
more weary of tormenting, than these men are 
of enduring torments^!" Nay, it made the 
greatest emperors themselves to fear poor 
Christians, as Herod did John Baptist, be- 
cause he was a holy man, and one that 
feared God. 

St. Basil affirmeth, that the very beholding 
of their constancy in suffering, made many 
heathen men suffer with them 7. " The devout 
life of a poor captive Christian woman," as 
Sozomen writeth, " made a king and his 
family to embrace the faith of Jesus Christ^ ;" 
and Eusebius sheweth, that Maximinus the 
emperor could not but wonder a to see how 
sedulous they were in doing good. When their 
very enemies were consumed with misery, 
they took from the small store they had, to 
relieve them ; they buried their dead, and 
never cease to follow them with the works of 
charity : . they were so religious, so humble, 

X TertuU. Apologia, y De quad. Mart, z Sozom. lib. 7. 
a Euseb. lib. 8. cap. 8. 

) o 

o 1 


SO just, SO charitable, as they made great ty- 
rants to give out edicts with Nebuchadnezzar, 
that none should worship any other God but 
the God of the Christians''. 

Julian the apostate, writing to Arsatius, 
bishop of Cappadocia, saidj " This same religion 
which they call Christian, is spread far and 
wide, by reason of the great beneficence of 
those whom they call Christians, to all mortal 
men of what religion soever." Whence we 
see, that the greatest enemy of the faith of 
Christ, could not but acknowledge the sin- 
cerity of former Christians. 

Merciful Lord, to compare our coldness with 
their fervency ; our negligence with their in- 
dustry ; our faint love with their burning 
charity ; we shall find such odds, as we may 
sorrow to see our own defects in this case. 
Calling to mind the learning of the ancient 
Fathers, we may think they did nothing but 
read ; seeing their works, that they did no- 
thing but write ; considering their devotion, 
that they did nothing but pray. 

I b Dan. iii. 29. 

o c 

k)- o 


X. How was God glorified in these ? and 
how is God glorified in us when we truly serve 
Him ? to this end, Christ willed His disciples 
that their light should shine before men c ; and 
St. Peter exhorteth, that by our good works 
we " glorify God in the day of visitation d;" 
in efi^ect, that we honour Christ by our 
Christian behaviour, which, saith St. Cyprian, 
" is to do the will of God, which will is, 
that we have steadfastness in faith, modesty 
in words, uprightness in action, in works 
mercy, in manners discipline and peace 
towards our brethren e." Ought not our 
uprightness to be inwardly, because it is unto 
God; and outwardly, because it is unto the 
glory of God? 

" By this," saith our Saviour, " shall men 
know that ye are My disciples^," when He 
spake of love ; which love is the accomplish- 
ment of the whole Law. Every general in 
the field hath his colours, whereby he and his 
company are known ; Love is Christ's banner. 

c Matt. V. 16. d I Pet. ii. 12. 
e Cyp. in Orat. Dom, f John xiii. 35. 

o o 

o— — 


under which we all train and keep a seemly 
Christian march, following Christ our Captain 
" and finisher of our faith^." Our enemies 
are the assaults of sin and temptations of 
Satan ; our weapons are " the shield of faith, 
the helmet of salvation, the sword of the 
Spirit^.'* " Our conquest is a crown of 
glory." ♦' I have fought," saith the Apostle, 
" a good fight, I have finished my course, I 
have kept the faith : henceforth is laid up for 
me a crown of righteousness i." 

XI. Look up into Heaven above, who are 
there rejoicing ? Who are now triumphant in 
glory, but those who were sometime militant 
in the works of gi-ace ? Who are now in that 
celestial society of Angels, beholding the pre- 
sence of God Himself, but those who some- 
time lived godly in the world, and were pure 
in heart "^ ? Cast we our eyes downward, to 
whom is that woful dungeon of darkness so 
often denounced, but unto dissolute and loose 
servants who never think of their Master's 

g Heb. xii. 2. h Ephes. vi. 17. 

i 2 Tim. iv. >j, 8. k Matt. v. 8. 

o o 

)-— — o 


return, and the account which will one day be 
required at their hands? The schoolmen do 
well distinguish a double punishment ; the one 
of loss, and the other of feeling : of loss, 
when they lose for ever in glory Him whom 
they would not receive, so often offering Himself 
unto them ; of feeling, they would not endure 
the pain of a little repentance, and therefore 
shall suffer the punishment of eternal pain. 

XH. Of all figures, say the mathematicians, 
a circle is the most absolute, because the be- 
ginning and end concur in one ; such is our 
holy conversation, which comes from God 
by grace, and ends in God by the works of 
grace ; all our actions are from Him, as the 
beams from the sun, as the smell from the 
flower, as the spark from the fire. The sun is 
discerned by his beams, the flower by the 
smell, the fire by the sparks from thence pro- 
ceeding. God is seen in His creatures, ad- 
mired in His works, but most glorified in His 
servants, the sons of men. 

We know there is in man somewhat more 
than man ; Christ said unto the Pharisees, 

— , o 

o o 


when the Herodians shewed Him a tribute 
penny, " Whbse image and superscription is 
this' ?" When we find in ourselves a most 
Divine and heavenly resemblance, let us say, 
Whose image is this ? Methinks we cannot but 
reply, Assuredly it is our heavenly Caesar's, 
and therefore give we unto Him the homage 
of our hearts, and if we have a thousand 
hearts, let us pay them all in tribute unto 
Him. The Angels of Heaven look for us, 
Jesus Christ Himself, the Lord of Angels, ex- 
pects us, whom He hath chosen to be heirs of 
glory : should we follow the world ? then 
may we fear the punishment of the world. 
What is it to gain a farm with him in the 
Gospel, and lose Heaven«i ? What is it to 
be married to the momentary pleasures of a 
sinful life, and for ever and ever to be di- 
vorced from Christ .'' 

There are in Holy Scripture promises 
laid down of an happy state to come ; to 
whom is this promised but to the Godly ? It 
may be well applied, which was misapplied in ; 

1 Matt. xxii. 20. m Luke xiv. i8. 

c- ^ c 

3 O 


the trial of the holy man Job, " We do not 
I serve God for nothing." As sure as God is 
Godj the righteous shall receive a reward. 
We know that man is immortal, and that his 
happiness is not here, " though that part which 
\ve see," saith Philo the learned Jew"*, " be 
mortal, and perish for a time ; yet there is a 
time to come, when it shall be raised, and 
there is a part in man which- abides for ever ; 
nay, at the general resurrection both parts 
abide for ever." 

XIII. Children when they are young, love 
their nurses more than their true and natural 
mothers ; but coming unto riper years, they 
then love where they chiefly ought : we are a 
while addicted to the world, and lose ourselves 
in the love thereof, but upon more mature 
judgment, we see that God only should have 
our love. " It is the manner of some nations," 
saith one, " for the inferior first to salute the 
superior ; and it is the custom again of other 
countries, as a sign of benediction, going 
downward, for the superior first to salute the 

n Philo de Fabrlca. Mundi. 

o o 

o ■ -c 


inferior." This custom Almighty God Him- 
self observeth with men ; first, He salutes us 
by His benefits, and then we salute Him by 
our obedience ; first. He loveth us as a Father, 
then we honour Him as children. Should we 
with the fed hawk forget our Master ? or, 
being full with God's benefits, like the moon, 
be then, most removed from the sun, from 
whence comes all her hght, and then by the 
interposition of earthly desires, become dark ? 
Hath Christ done so much for us, and should 
we seem to be carried away into the land 
where all things are forgotten, and do nothing 
in serving Him ? God forbid ! At that dreadful 
day of doom, "the greatest part of the evi- 
dence," saith St. Cyprian °, "that Satan will bring 
in against careless men, is the neglect of their 
dutiful serving the Lord Jesus ; when he shall 
say, O eternal Judge, for these, I never be- 
nefited them, I never endured labour or 
travail to redeem them, and yet have they fol- 
lowed me ; I no sooner tempted them to evil, 
but they obeyed me. Thou camest from 

o S. Cyprian, de op. et clem. 

O o 

) o 


Heaven, and enduredst many things in the world 
to win them, and yet they never followed 
Thee : Thou didst shed Thy most precious 
Blood to save them, and yet they would never 
worship Thee." Hitherto St. Cyprian. 

XIV. How can we then omit the perform- 
ance of our Christian duty ? Should it be said 
of holiness as it was once in another case, 
" We have heard report of such a matter P," 
and so let it go ? Will our lip worship serve 
the turn ? The foolish virgins were found with 
their " So saying^," but the good servants 
shall be found with their " So doing'"." 

Our Isaac will not only hear Jacob's voice ^ 
but " Come hither My son," let Me have thy 
hands too, and then He gives a fatherly bene- 

John sendeth his disciples to Christ, to 
know whether He were the Messias that 
should come into the world, or they should 
look for another ? The answer our Saviour re- 
turneth is this; "Tell John what you have 

p Jobxxviii. 32. q Matt. XXT. ii. 

T Lukexii. 43. s Gen. xxvii. 32. 

o o 

o ^c 


heard and seen* ;" what you have heard only ? 
No, but heard and seen. " He doth neither 
affirm nor deny," saith Bede, " but would 
rather have His works testify of Him, than that 
He would testify of Himself"." 

He came from Heaven to do His Father's 
will on earth, and we here on earth must do 
His win who is now ascended up into Heaven. 

XV. To comprehend many things within 
the circle of a short conclusion, the sum of all 
is ; " There is nothing more sweet than to 
serve God v." When Pythagoras heard a 
vicious fellow affirm he had rather spend his 
time in wanton company, than amongst the 
sour philosophers, " No marvel," said he, " for 
swine had rather be tumbling in the mire, than 
laid in the cleanest places of all." 

There is no peace comparable to that which is 
wont to accompany the service of God. It is 
said of the Dioscorides, men living far remote, 
yet professing the Christian religion, that 
dwelling in the midst of the sea, yet have they 
not the use of ships ; they live with such quiet 

I t Luke vii. 22. u Beda in Luc. v Ecclus xxiii. 27. 

o c 

__ o 


' and content in their estate, or without any 
[' desire of seeking superfluity. " Who shall 
ascend," saith the Prophet, " unto the hill of 
1 the Lord, but even he that hath pure hands, 
I and hath not lifted up his mind to vanity ? he 
shall receive a blessing from the Lord, and 
righteousness from the God of his salvation ^^'." 
Nature hath taught the bombyx, or silk- 
worm, providing before for her end, first to 
wind herself all in silk, and then, she be- 
coming white and winged, in shape of a 
flying thing, and so she dieth. Let grace 
lead us in the same course, first clothing our- 
selves with that precious silk of Chi'ist, His 
merits, and then become white for innocency 
and holiness of life ; and last of all, with the 
wings of faith and hope, prepare ourselves to 
fly to that heavenly repose of our everlasting 
rest in Christ Jesus. 

\v Ps. xxtv. 3 — 6. 

o c 


That the end of a Christian life in following Christ, is 
endless felicity in the life to come. 

If it be true, as most true it is, whatsoever 
things are written, they are written for our 
learning, then surely is that of St. Matthew, 
" Whosoever foUoweth the Son of God in this 
regeneration, shall sit in the throne of His 
glory a." The sitting' then in the throne of 
Christ His glory, is the end of a Christian 
life, or of our following of Him. 

Infinite were it to shew how the philoso- 
phers of old, as men in a winter's night, 
amidst many strange and unknown ways, do 
run and range, they know not whither. Infi- 
nite were it, I say, to set down how they spent 
all their life poring in the dark, if we respect 
the light of grace, in seeking and searching 
out man's chiefest end. Some would have it 

a Matt. xix. 28. 





to consist in pleasure ; but if pleasure were 
man's chief happiness, then beasts were 
happy ; if sensual life were man's end, then is 
he oft ended by his end. Some would have it 
to consist in riches, in honour, prosperity, and 
the like ; but if that were so, then were man 
much worse than a clod of earth, because the 
end is ever better than those things which are 
tending to the end. Briefly, to sum up the 
total of these distractions, if man's chiefest 
good consisteth in things mortal, then where 
becomes the felicity of the soul, which is a 
substance immortal, as sundry of themselves 
do confess ? 

II. To leave these men in the maze of their 
own fancies, our Christian faith, blessed be 
God, teacheth us to mount higher, and to be- 
hold another end, which cannot be worn out, 
and therefore is not subject to fear ; full of all 
happiness, and therefore is able to satisfy our 
desires to the full. The difference then be- 
tween those who remained in the foggy mist 
of Egypt, and them whom God hath in mercy 
placed in the little land of Goshen, is this ; 

o o 

O ( 


they to an uncertain, but we direct all our 
actions unto a most sure and certain end ; 
they hope for somewhat in show, we some- 
what in deed ; they are about the delight of 
the sense, we in the perfect contentment of 
the soul looking up to those joys whither all 
our endeavours do jointly run, as unto the sole 
period of all our being ; well is that state 
wherein nothing is wanting. Peter cried out, 
and we may all cry out with him, " Lord, it is 
good for us to be here^," Being freed from 
sin, we are made the servants of God, our 
fruit is holiness, our reward is everlasting life c. 
" Let a Christian but call to mind whereunto 
he is bom/' saith the Apostle, " or rather born 
anew'^ ; " to wit, to an inheritance immortal, 
and it will soon raise him up from earthly 

in. Will you hear what the Apostle saith, 
nay, what he was not able to say, concerning 
the excellency of the end of man; "Eye 
hath not seen, ear hath not heard, heart 

i cannot conceive the things which God hath 
b Matt. xxii. 4. 23. d i Pet. i. 3. 

O- C 

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prepared for them that love Himc." The 
glorification of man is a state inexplicable, and 
therefore to enter into it were to wade into a 
I bottomless sea ; faith only is the mean where- 
by we can approach, and see but the " back 
parts," as Moses in the cleft^, when the glory 
of God passed by. " Of things infinite," say 
the philosophers, " we cannot but infinitely 

" It doth not yet appear," saith St. John, 
" what we shall be," but that happy time will 
come when it shall appear, and then " we shall 
be like unto HimS." " At that day shall the 
just shine as the sun in the kingdom of their 
Father li :" a marvellous saying of Christ our 
Saviour, and in human sense almost incredible, 
that the children of God shall shine, and be- 
come as clear as the sun ; sure they shall not 
need the light of the sun, who shall themselves 
shine as the sun. 

Here, we are as the clouds, some higher, 
some lower, all go to and fro ; there, we shall 

e 1 Cor. ji. 9. f Exod. xxxiii. 22. 

g 1 John !ii. 2, h Matt, xiii, 43. 

3 O 

o ^ c 


be as fixed stars in the firmament of glory ; 
here, we are fighting with enemies, there, we 
shall be triumphing without enemies ; here, 
striving to overcome, there, secure with vic- 
tory ; here, in action, there, in contemplation ; 
here in the way, but there, at the end of the 

IV. The end considered, the mean pre- 
cedent unto this end remaineth to be observed. 
For the mean only this, religion and piety 
is the way leading to a Christian life : a 
Christian life is the gate whereby we enter 
into the confines of this sanctuary ; a careful 
consideration of our calling to the state of 
grace, is the porter that keeps good motions 
in, and also evil motions out. 

For religion and piety, let the epicure pro- 
pose to himself pleasure, the atheist plots and 
castles in the air ; the Christian hath where 
to rest his soul, knowing that the end of his 
being in the world was to serve God, and the 
end of serving God is to enjoy endless joys in 
the world to come. For it cannot be, but 
that he for whom the world was made, 

o c 

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sliould have some further end, more excellent 
than the world, for the accomplishment of 
which, he never ceaseth until he be there ; as 
all natural things tend unto the centre, and 
I when they are there they would not be re- 

V. " In which course of a Christian life," 
saith St. Basil, " there is a reward, a reward 
indeed, far above the work and exceeding the 
desert thereof, by reason of the magnificence 
of Him that rewardeth the work^." A serious 
consideration hereof cannot but encourage 
Christians against all dangers that may occur 
in pursuing this reward. When king Alphon- 
so was persuaded as stories mention, not to 
attempt war for fear of imminent danger, " I 
fear not danger," quoth he, " for who hath 
ever attained victory without adventuring 
dangers !" Distrust and fear of difficulty 
doth often dissuade us from the prosecuting 
and pursuing of this reward : if all difficulty 
should dismay us, then how should we attain 

' i Lactant. de divin. Priemi. lib. 7. cap. 10. 

I k S. Basil in Ps. cxiv. 

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our hoped end ? For who hath ever attained 
the same end since the foundations of the 
world, without labour and difficulty ? Christ 
Himself went not up into glory, but first He 
suffered pain. 

One being asked, whether he would be So- 
crates or Croesus, the one an industrious and 
painful philosopher, the other a man flowing in 
all abundance ? answered ; " that for this life 
he would be Croesus, but for the life to come 
Socrates ;" thereby shewing that here rich 
men are happy, but hereafter good men are 
happy ; now of the two, future happiness is 
the better. 

For the attaining of this happy end, the 
Christian must apply himself to observe the 
means precedent unto the same. When our 
Saviour Christ cured the blind man in the 
Gospel, His least touching, nay, His word only 
was sufficient to have restored his sight ; yet 
to shew how He required industry, the blind 
man must go and wash at the pool of Siloam'. 
Yea, it is obsei-ved by the learned, that our 

1 John ix. II. 

o o 



Saviour for the most part never cured any 
man, but He straightway enjoined him some 
duty ; as to the lepers, " Go shew yourselves 
to the priest ;" to another, " Give God 
praise ;" to a third, " Sin no more." 
St. Paul the Apostle had received by Divine 
revelation, that none with him in the ship 
should perish '" : what then ? must all be se- 
cure, and wilfully cast themselves into the sea ? 
No, that were to have tempted their Preserver; 
but when the case so requireth, every one 
must endeavour himself to use the means 
ordained to save his life. We are all bound 
for Heaven, and we sail in this mortal life with 
contrary winds ; sometime there is a tempest, 
and anon cometh a calm ; the one is ready to 
make us doubt of God by impatience, the 
other to forget Him by security. Therefore 
four principal virtues we must ever exercise in 
this passage, the love of God — the hate of 
sin — the hope of mercy — and the fear of 
justice, which shall ever guide us in a right 
Christian course unto our end ; all the way 

m Acts xxvii. 23, 24. 

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o c 


meditating that God is an ocean sea of infinite 
goodness, and that of this He first created the 
world ; by this He still guideth it ; by this 
He sufFereth many injuries offered to His most 
sacred Name ; by this He causeth the sun to 
rise upon the good and evil ; by this He 
maketh the rain to come down upon the just 
and sinners ; by this He hath ordained man 
so many means and helps to come unto Him : 
and last of all, by this He would not be alone 
in a state of high excellency, but hath vouch- 
safed His creatures, men and Angels, to be 
partakers with Him, and in a manner consorts 
of His glory. Could ever man so much 
desire his own good, as he is now brought 
unto it by the goodness of his God ? " Oh the 
depth of the wisdom of the riches of the 
mercy of God !" 

VH. Now all this considered, who is able 
sufficiently to express the dignity of our 
Christian calling, the end whereof is so joy- 
ful ? All the labours of a religious life are no 
way comparable unto the excellency hereof; 
our fasting, our praying, the chief matter we 

O o 

f o 


I Eire to attend, our serving God, is the best 
time bestowed of all. Things of the world 
are subject to mutability, strife, discord, envy, 
but the time will come, when the sheep shall 
no more fear the wolf; the glorification of 
man in the life to come is such, as he shall 
cry out with David, " Lord, what am I that 
Thou hast brought me to thisii ?" 

VITI. Next consider we what happiness do 
they lose that neglect so great a price pro- 
posed unto them, for the vain pleasures and 
sensual delights of a sinful life ! It is said of 
one Lysimachus, who being in battle against 
the Scythians, only to satisfy his appetite, and 
procure a little liquor to stay his thirst, gave 
himself over into his enemies' hands ; when 
he was now leading away captive to perpetual 
misery, he then began to acknowledge in these 
words his own folly, " O," saith he, " for how 
little pleasure, what liberty, what felicity have 
I lost !" seeing his countrymen to return home 
with joy, and himself hauled along by his 
enemies to remain in misery. 

n 2 Sam. vii. i8. 

D O 

o c 


Oh, that men would consider Lysimachus 
his case, and not lose their eternal liberty for 
some momentary and fading delights ! What a 
woeful case will it be to see themselves leading 
unto that rueful servitude, and to behold the 
servants of God going in triumphant manner 
to rejoice and to live with Him in glory! 
Wherefore, leaving all allurements of this 
transitory life, let Christians cheerfully go for- 
ward " to the prize of the high-calling in 
Christ Jesus °," knowing that "the trial of 
their faith," as St. Peter saith, " is much more 
precious than gold that perisheth, though it be 
tried with fire, that it may be found to their 
praise, and the honour and glory of God, at 
the appearing of Jesus Christ : Whom having 
not seen they love ; in Whom now, although 
they see Him not, yet do they believe and 
rejoice with joy unspeakable and glorious, 
receiving the end of their faith, even the 
salvation of their souls p." The mother of 
Lemuel exhorted her son not to be won with 
the vanities of the world i ; for why ? he was 

o Phil. iii. 14. p I Pet. i. 7 — 9. q Prov. xxxi. i. 9. 

O— ( 

) o 


a man of worth. We are of worth who are 
reserved to so happy an end ; therefore let us 
resolve with Joshua, " I and my house will 
serve the Lord^" 

That there is an estate and condition of 
felicity in the life to come, none will deny, 
unless he deny God; that this estate and 
condition is man's end, we know and cannot 
but know. 

To conclude then, the end of a Christian 
life, is not as Anaxagoras dreamed of the life of 
man, to behold the Heavens, but to live in 
Heaven. " The dead in Christ shall rise : then 
we which are alive and remain shall be caught 
up together with them in the clouds, to meet 
the Lord in the air : and so shall we ever be 
with the Lords." 

r Josh. xxiv. 15. s 1 Tliess. iv. 16, 17. 

y c 


That our best direction to live Christianly, is to follow 

the example of Christ our Saviour, VVho was not 

only a sacrifice for sin, but also a most 

perfect pattern for imitation. 

Although the chief and principal end why 
God sent His Son into the world, was that 
man might be redeemed, yet convenient was 
it also for man, to have proposed unto him the : 
example of his Redeemer ; " wherefore," saith 
Leo, "that Man, meaning Christ, ought for 
to be God, to bring a remedy to man fallen, 
and that God also ought to be Man, to propose 
unto man an example of living, so He was 
to be both God and Man." Now then our 
Saviour Christ ; as He was God, He is the 
object of our faith, as Man, the instruction of 
our life : as He gave Himself vmto the Father 
a sacrifice, by Whom we were redeemed, so 
did He exhibit Himself unto all believers an 
example of holiness, bv whom He will be 

O ( 



followed : for so He pleased God by His sa- 
crifice, and bound man unto Him in love and 
duty by His example. Therefore He was the 
i sum of the Law and Gospel ; the Law teaching 
j us what to do, the Gospel what to believe ; so 
in Christ both believing and doing concur in 
: one. The scope of the Law was the avoiding 
'I of sin, and of the Gospel, a satisfaction for sin ; 
the Law drives us to grace, and grace enableth 
us to plead in Christ a satisfaction of the Law. 
The Law saith, " He that sinneth shall die;" 
the Gospel saith, " If we sin, we have an Ad- 
vocate with the Father," and a good advocate 
doth often help a bad cause. 
,^. To shew, in the first place, that He was a 
satisfaction for sin, it is an axiom so generally 
received on all parts, as all Christians in a 
manner join hands in this, "The Blood of 
Jesus cleanseth us from all our sins^." This 
is a sure confession of faith, upon which we 
stay, as the house upon the foundation : Adam 
did eat the apple, Christ paid the price, and a 
dear price was it. 

a I John i, 7. 

■:) o 



The woman in the Apocalypse, signifying 
the Church, she was clothed with the sun; 
this clothing was the Righteousness of the Son 
of God. " Our righteousness," saith St. Au- 
stin, " where is it ? it is His Righteousness that 
must do us good." " It sufficeth for my 
justice only," saith St. Bernard, " to have Him 
reconciled unto me, against Whom only I have 
sinnedc;" "yea," saith St. Jerome, "when 
we confess our sins which we cannot but do, 
when we remember them ; our righteousness 
consisteth not in merit, but in mercy •^." 
Men may argue and toss matters to and fro, 
speaking this or that of merit ; but come we to 
the touch, open the closet of the conscience, 
and ask what is deserved, then the case is 
altered. The learned in the schools may 
debate the question pro et contra, but come to 
their devotions, and there we find all meriting 
ascribed only unto mercy e. Ask what is to 
be done of others, haply one thing may be an- 
swered; but ask in good earnest what they 

c S.Bern. Kp. 119. d S. Hierom. in Dial. cont. Pelagios. 
e Durandus lib. 2. dist. 88. quaest. 4. 

O — c 



i think of themselves, they will tell us of an- 

I otherf 

One of the greatest clerks that this age 
hath had, when he had long discoursed of the 
controversy of Justification, and therein left 
never a stone unturned, towards the folding up 
of all, hath these words, "It is more safe to 
forget merits, and to look only unto the mercy 
of Godg." So, when men have wearied them- 
selves in matters of doubt, they find, O Holy 
Christ, that Thy only merits must stand them 
in stead ; coming for a blessing, we must have 
our eldest Brother's garment, as Jacob had. 
- II. To proceed then ; as Christ was a sacri- 
fice for sin, so also was He an example of 
Christian-like living. When He chose first of 
all to redeem man, which He could have accom- 
plished by death only, then He undertook 
amongst men a condition of life, that by that 
course of life. He might propose unto them 
an example of living, and that as He redeemed 
them from the transgression of Adam, so He 


f Thomas adver. Gent. cap. 44. 
g Card. Bellarmin. lib. v. de Just. cap. i. 


o c 


noight also draw them from the manners of 
Adam : that being redeemed, they might learn 
how to adhere to God, and to live worthy of 
their Redeemer, and become careful not to 
fall into a relapse again. 

Again, the perfection of the creature is to 
be joined with his Creator, and as much as 
may be to be made like unto Him, " We have 
carried the image of earthly Adam, let us also 
carry the image of the heavenly," saith the 
blessed Apostle. Last of all, we are promised 
to be like Christ in the state of glory, let us j 
have likeness of Him in the state of grace. 
God we know hath given His Son to be like 
unto us, we must withal conceive that His 
win is we should in some measure be like unto 
Him. To bear the image of the earthly 
Adam, what is it but to follow him in dis- 
obedience ? to bear the image of the heavenly, 
what is it but to have some hkeness of His 
Holiness ? 

IV. And now to run a little over the whole 
life of the Son of God, see we every age, 
every action therein, so far as our capacity is 

o ^ c 



able to conceive, and we shall find it a school 
of instruction, a perfect rule of most perfect 
disciphne ; nowhere do we behold such a pre- 
cedent of love, of humility, of patience, of 
chastity, and, in a word, of all virtues, as in 
His most holy life. Where is there true 
wisdom, but in the doctrine of Christ ? true 
fortitude, but in the Passion of Christ ? true 
clemency, but in the mercy of Christ ? true 
humility, but in the obedience of Christ ? He 
was made man, and walked in the world as 
man, that He might teach man to live, as He 
taught him to believe ; before ever He 
preached in words. He preached most eifect- 
ually in works. O Sacred Babe, Heaven's bliss 
and hell's bane, lying in the manger at Beth- 
lehem, and brought up in a mean hostel at 
Nazareth ! What else did he teach by all this 
than contempt of the world ? His exile or ban- 
ishment in Egypt, His being born in the days 
of cruel Herod ; what do we hence learn, 
but patient suffering of persecution ? By His 
fasting in the wilderness, austerity of life ; by 
His conflict with the tempter, how to with- 

^o- o 

O ^ o 


stand temptation ? Behold we tlie contumely- 
offered Him of the Jews, calling Him a blas- 
phemer, a friend of Publicans, a seducer of 
the people, what a lesson have we here of 
patience ! Let us see His labours and travail 
in the world. His journeying from city to 
city, how He teacheth in the day, and is all 
the night praying ; His chastity. Whose Virgin 
Mother brought forth chastity itself ; His love, 
who ever more charitable than He Who in 
the pangs of death prayed for His persecutors ? 
His obedience, was there ever greater ? As an 
innocent Lamb " He opened not His mouth 
before the shearer^^," nay, " He became obedi- 
ent unto death, even unto the death of the 
cross^" " Yea," saith St. Bernard, " He 
chose rather to lose life than obedience." 

V. Again, by His nakedness we learn how 
to clothe us ; by His gall and vinegar how to 
delight us ; by His wounds and piercings how 
to pamper us. If we speak of the world and 
worldly things, who less respected them thEin 
He ? If we consider care of heavenly, thither 

h Isaiah liii. 7. i Pbil. ii. 8. 


) o 


tended all His care. If alms, where was there 
ever such an alms-man heard of, that gave 
His own body and blood to refresh the 
hungry ? If bountifulness. Paradise itself was 
granted unto a sinful suitor at the very first 
motion. What can a Christian heart desire, 
which is not found with spiritual delight in the 
life of Christ ? What virtue can he wish, but 
there he shall see a Uvely image thereof ? 

VI. Christ was the eye that was without 
moat, the white without stain. He was the 
Lamb without spot or blemish. The Prophets 
shew His innocency before He comes, and 
being come, the Evangelists approve the 
same : the chronicles of heathen men are not 
silent, the Roman register makes report of 
Jesus, " which was called of the nations the 
Prophet of truth, a man goodly to behold, 
having a reverend countenance. His stature 
somewhat tall. His hair after the colour of the 
ripe hazel nut, from His ears somewhat 
crisped, parting itself in the midst of the 
head, and waving with the wind, after the 
manner of the Nazarites ; His forehead smooth 

o o 

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and plain ; His face without wrinkle, mixed 
with moderate red; His beard somewhat 
copious, tender, and divided at the chin ; His 
eyes gray, various and clear ; He is in re- 
buking, severe ; in instructing, loving and 
amiable, merry with gravity. He sometimes 
wept, but was never seen to laugh ; in talk 
sober, and full of understanding, sparing and 
modest''." Thus as ancient records have laid 
it down, we may behold Him according to 
that of the Psalmist, " Goodly to see, above all 
the sons of men." Outwardly, His graceful 
behaviour was such, while He walked in the 
world, that the world itself did behold Him 
with high reverence and admiration ; yet His 
external feature compared with His inward 
graces, the external was far inferior to that 
hidden excellency of His. 

Saul was higher than all the men of Israel 
by the Head^ Christ the Head of the congre- 
gation is above all ; the lights of the stars are 
many, but all are not comparable to the light 
of the sun. Holy men have a measure of 

k Lentulus ad Senatum. Centur. i. 1 i Sam. ix. 2. 

o o 

, — ^ — o 


grace, but the Son of Man had grace without 
measure ; wherefore, take the piety of Enoch, 
the faith of Abraham, the patience of Job, 
the meditation of Isaac, the chastity of Joseph, 
the meekness of Moses, the zeal of Phinehas, 
the uprightness of Samuel, the mercifulness of 
Tobit, the devotion of Daniel", and with these 
the wisdom of Solomon, put them all together 
as a cloud of witnesses, and Christ's example 
instead of all^^. Wherefore He is called, "The 
Holy of Holies." " In this sacred place," 
saith the Apostle, " was contained the golden 
censer, the ark of the Testament, the golden 
pot that contained manna, the rod of Aaron, 
that being dead, budded again, the wings of 
the Cherubims, over- shadowing the mercy- 
seato," So, in Christ is contained the ark of 
the Covenant between God and man ; with the 
censer, the acceptation of the prayers of the 
saints; with the golden pot that contained 
manna, the blessed Sacrament ; with Aaron's 
dead rod that budded again, the hope of the re- 
surrection . The two Cherubims that looked face 

m Dan. vi. lo. n Heb. xii. i. 2. o Heb. ix. 3, 5. 

O o 

9 — - — ^ o 


I to face ; the two Testaments, both looking 
i unto one mercy-seat, to wit, Christ, whom 
Isaiah calleth the " Prince of PeaceQ ; " Haggai, 
"the desire of the nations'";" Malachi, "the 
Sun of Righteousness^ ;" the Angel, "Jesus, 
Who shall save His people from their sins*." 

VII. " There was none of those beatitudes," 
saith St. Austin, " of which our Saviour spake 
in His first sermon upon the mount, whereof 
He was not only a teacher, but also a perfect 
and full observer, for Christ evermore lived as 
He taught"." 

He exhorteth to be " poor in spirit ; " who 

poorer than He, Who became, from being equal 

with God, far lower than the Angels, yea, " a 

scorn of men," as the Prophet speaks ? He 

i exhorteth to "meekness;" who more meek 

I than He, Who was as a sheep, not opening His 

mouth before the shearer ? He exhorteth to 

I "mourning;" who hath mourned as He 

mourned. Who in the days of His flesh did 

I oflFer up "prayers and suppUcations, with 

q Isaiab ix, 9. r Haggai ii. 7. s Mai. iv. 2. 

t Matt. i. 21, u S.Aug, in Ser. in mont. Matt. V. 

o o 

3 ^ ^o 


strong crying and tears, unto Him that was 
I able to save Him^ ? He exhorteth to " hun- 
ger and thirst after righteousness;" who 
could hunger and thirst more than He Who 
gave His life for the righteousness of many ? 
He exhorteth " to suffer persecution for right- 
eousness sake ; " Who ever suffered more^ or 
with more patience, than did the Son of God ? 
Last of all, He taught His disciples "to leave 
all for the love of Him ;" but He first left all 
for their love, when He left His kingdom and 
throne in Heaven. 

VHI. It is said of Caesar, that in his 
greatest attempts, he used not that word of au- 
thority, Ite, " Go you ; " but after a most loving 
and sociable manner he would ever say unto 
his soldiers, Eamus, " Come, let us go." It was 
most true in Christ before all other, He never 
but led the way before His disciples in all 
hohness, in all trials and tribulations, in all 
conflicts which are wont to arise in the life of 
man. And therefore the Apostle willeth us to 
" run with patience the race set before us, 

V Heb. V. 7. 

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o o 


looking unto Jesus the Author and Finisher 
of our faith If." 

IX. Stories relate there were in Greece 
certain fields called palcestrce, where young men 
exercised themselves in wrestling ; in these 
were set up the statues of some valiant cham- 
pions, that the young men that should wrestle 
might fix their eyes upon them, and so be en- 
couraged to fight, as they sometimes fought, 
obtaining the victory : the life of a Christian 
is a wrestling place. We may look upon many 
excellent champions, but Christ is in stead 
of all, for what better example could ever have 
been given than the example of Christ ? How 
could our pride be better suppressed than by 
His humility ? our stubbornness better lessened 
than by His meekness ? our vanities better ex- 
pelled than by His labours ? our impatiency 
better quahfied than by His patience ? " Where 
have we," saith St. Bernard, " true justice but 
in His mercy, true fortitude but in His con- 
stancy ?" " Christ was made unto us," saith 
the Apostle, " wisdom, and righteousness, and 

X Heb. xii. i, 2. 

o 1 

3 O 


sanctification, and redemption^'." Wisdom, by 
instructing us ; righteousness, by absolving us 
from our sins ; sanctification, by giving us of 
His Spirit to enable us to lead sanctified lives ; 
and redemption, by purchasing us life by His 

" That we should not love gold," saith 
St. Austin, " Christ taught us to contemn gifts 
offered ; that we should not fear hunger. He 
fasted ; that we should not distrust nakedness, 
He forbad His disciples divers change of rai- 
ment ; that we should not be dismayed at 
tribulations. He endured tribulation ; that we 
should not fear death. He died^." He hath 
levelled and laid out the way which leadeth 
unto life ; yea, and is gone before us in the 
way like another Joseph, to provide for His 

X. In the meantime, if we follow His steps, 
so far forth as we may, if His way be our 
way. His joys shall be our joys. 

Him we have the guide of our journey, the 
Author of our health : " That which Christ is," 

y I Cor. i. 30. I S, Aug. Epist. iii. ad Julianum. 

o o 

o c 


saith one, " we Christians shall be, if we 
follow Christ :" " wherefore, O Lord," saith 
St. Austin, " grant I may be Thine in love and 
imitation, as I am Thine by creation and 

XL The spouse in the Canticles saith, " I 
am black a;" but marvel not, the Sun hath 
made me so : the Sun, but what Sun ? the Sun 
of Righteousness. And how could that be ? 
Yes, the Son of God, His labours and troubles 
in the world. His reproaches and suffering 
made Him look with a sorrowful hue ; " He 
was wounded," saith the Prophet, " for our 
transgressions, and broken for our iniquities, 
the chastisement of our peace was laid upon 
Himti," in our suffering He suffered with us. 

What needed He to be circumcised the 
eighth day ? What needed He fast so long 
in the wilderness, and pray so often as He did, 
who was so pure, so innocent, so powerful, 
but all to shew unto us an example of doing 
and suffering. 

a Cant. i. J. b Isaiah liii. i. 

o c 


That this example of Christ's hfe, ought ever to stand 
before the eyes of the minds of Christians, 

The skilful pilot, as he often casts his eye 
unto the stars and planets above, so is his hand 
also busy at the helm beneath. The Christian 
man between contemplation and action, faith 
and good works, doth the like : by faith he 
looks up to Christ's Deity ; by good works he 
practiseth the virtues of His humanity ; in the 
one he worships Him as God, in the other he 
beholds Him as the most absolute pattern for 
imitation, that ever walked amongst men. 

" Now in this case, the contemplation of 
the manhood of Christ our Saviour," saith 
St. Bernard, " is more sure for some sort of 
men, than the high contemplation of the 



o c 


II. From the contemplation and imitation of 
His manhood, amongst other effects this is one; 
to propose unto ourselves " a pattern for imi- 
tation." We may perceive that our Saviour 
used this as a special argument to persuade 
His disciples to humility and love ; "I have 
given you an example^." St. Peter, speaking 
of His suffering, saith, " Christ suffered, 
leaving us an example «"." When the Apostle 
would have Christians to follow him, he tells 
them his meaning was, they should indeed 
follow Christ ; " Be ye followers of me, as I 
follow Christ '^." When he cometh to exhort 
them to forgive one another, he would have 
them to think of Him who hath forgiven us 
all, saying ; " Forgive you one another, as 
Christ forgave you^." St. John lays down 
the matter plainly ; "He that remaineth in 
Him, ought to walk as He walked'." 

III. Why did St. Austin say that every of 
Christ's actions was our instruction ? and 
St. Ambrose wish that the wise men of the 

b John xiii. ij. c i Pet. ii. 21. rl i Cor. xi. i. 
e Ephes. iv, 32. f i John ii. 6. 

o c 



world would be wise indeed, and learn to follow 
Christ in lowliness of mind, that they would 
ever set before them His example Who is gone 
before us to Heaven. Therefore Gregory, 
amongst other high and heavenly ends of 
Christ's coming in the flesh, maketh this one ; 
" The Son of God took the form of our in- 
firmity, bare the scoffs of contumelies, the 
reproaches of irrision, the torments of suffer- 
ing, that so God might teach mang." To this 
Isidore addeth ; " Christ ascended unto the 
cross, died and rose again the third day from 
the dead, to leave us a double example of suf- 
fering and rising again ; of suffering, to 
confirm our patience ; of rising, to confirm 
our faith li." For the confirming of our faith, 
we ought to cast off all impediments to come 
unto Him ; of Whom we may say with Jeho- 
shaphat of old time, " When we know not 
what to do ; O Son of God, this only is left 
unto us, to lift up our eyes unto Thee'." 

IV. For worldly pleasures, those of the best 

g S. Greg. mor. h Isid. lib. lo. cap. 29. de Eccles. ofBciis 

I i 3 Chron. xx. 13. 

3 O 

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sort, if they are honest, yet they perish ; if 
otherwise, we perish ; only to follow Christ is 
man's chiefest good. Abimelech, the son of 
Jerubbaal, goeth to the men of Shechem, and 
thus speaketh to persuade them ; "I am of 
your kindred, of your bone and flesh :" the 
men of Shechem answered, " Our hearts are 
moved to follow Abimelech, he is our bro- 
ther^." We have somewhat more to move 
us than these men had^ if we remember our- 
selves well, and therefore may more truly say, 
We will follow the Lord Jesus, He is our 

V. The eagle, to learn her young ones to 
fly, doth oftentimes flutter over them, all to 
teach them to raise up themselves by little and 
little, and so at last to be able to take their 
flight and be gone^ What do all the precepts 
and examples of Christ our Saviour, but hover 
over us, that we should learn to lift up our- 
selves from earthly affections, and in time 
ascend to heaven, whither He ascended. 

The Divine Majesty might have used His 

k Judges ix. 2, 3. 1 Dent, xxxii. 11. 

o ^ o 

p— o 


power, and by His only precept command- 
ed ; He might have also enforced our wills : 
but because that was not agreeable to human 
nature, of His infinite love God became Man ; 
He took on Him the nature of man, and 
therein did many things for our example. 
The subject will follow his prince, the servant 
his master, the soldier his captain, the natural 
child desireth nothing more than to manifest 
the virtues of his father. "Is he then worthy 
to bear the name of Christ," saith St. Austin, 
" who doth no way endeavour the imitation of 
Christ's actions™ ?" In that we beheve in 
Him, we acknowledge Him our God : in that 
we endeavour to do that which Christ did as 
Man, we do that which Christian men should 

VI. The Holy Scriptures were not there- 
fore given us, that we should have them in 
books, only to read or peruse them, and so 
no more : but the folding up of all is, a 
pronouncing of them blessed that do His 
commandments. Far better is it with the 

m S. Aug. de vita Christiana. 

) o 


Lacedsemonians to do well, than with the 
Athenians to speak well, or only know what 
belongs to well- doing. 

Christ hath done His part, and conformed 
Himself to us ; our part remains to conform 
ourselves unto Him. In the way of life Whom 
may we more safely follow than the Way itself ? 
" Let the same mind be in you," saith the 
Apostle, " that was in Christ "^ :" the same, 
that is, in humbleness of mind, a resemblance 
of the same. 

Vn. Whence is it, that we are so soon cast 
down with every touch of adversity, but that 
we do not deeply consider Christ's constancy 
in suffering all kind of adversity ? Whence is it 
that we are so easily carried away with every 
alluring and deceitful vanity, but in that we 
lightly pass over Christ's contempt of the 
world ? " Who," saith Fulgentius, " will not 
despise his cottage when he seeth a Senator 
despise his large and spacious buildings o ?" 
And who contemns not earthly things, to get 

n Phil. ii. <. o Fulgen. de conv. ad Theo. 

o c 



heavenly, when he sees a Consul of Rome do 
the same ? yea, much more, what Christian 
man in the world will place his whole delight 
upon a transitory estate, when he sees the 
Son of God pass this life, only seeking His 
Father's glory in heaven ? 

Sure it is, that whereas our lives here are 
partly guided by precepts, and partly directed 
by examples, had we no precept in the world, 
the only life of our Redeemer were enough 
for our guide and direction in the way of 

VIII. Our Saviour reasoneth with the Jews 
after this manner ; "If you were the children 
of Abraham, then would you do the works of 
AbrahamP." He calleth Himself a Shepherd, 
and we are resembled unto sheep 1 ; now al- 
though sheep according to the philosopher be 
a cattle given to stray ; yet, saith our Saviour, 
" They will hear the voice of the shepherd, 
and follow him also." 

IX. " Awake, O Christian soul," saith 
St. Austin «", " awake, and imitate the foot- 

p John viii. 39. q John x. 14. r S. August, de nat. anima. 

o o 

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steps of thy Lord. He teacheth thee. Who is 
the way, the hfe, and the truth ; the way 
without erring, the truth without deceiving, 
the hfe without fading : the way by example ; 
the truth by promise ; the hfe by reward. 
Neglect not the following of so gracious a 
liOrd. How shall the neghgent be one day 
confounded, to see Him so careful of doing 
good, a thing Uttle thought upon by them, 
much less practised ? The voluptuous to see 
Him in glory. Who once lived in fasting and 
great austerity ? The proud, in seeing Him 
exalted. Who refused earthly pomp ? The 
covetous, in beholding Him Lord of heaven 
and earth. Who never followed the riches of 
this world } Merciful God ! what a strange 
sight will this be unto them ! how shall they 
be amazed in themselves ! how often will they 
wish with sighs, they had walked in His ways. 
Dionysius the elder, when he heard of the 
great folly committed by his son, he calls him 
unto him, and reasons with him after this 
manner ; " Didst thou ever see me do as thou 
doest, live as thou hvest ?" the same may be 

C-- ^o 

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said to men who follow a careless course of 
life. Did Christ live as you live ? No verily. 

X. It is read of the fox, that he never goeth 
by the high way and beaten path, lest he 
should be found by his steps ; neither goeth 
he on directly, but now this way, now that, to 
confound the eyes of them that seek him. So 
sinners, as the fox, walk not the way of God, 
but have by-passages, the which lead not the 
right way, but to a by-end. 

XI. When the mariners want in the main 
sea marks to direct their course by, they 
take their mark, which is the surest way, 
from the heavens. In like manner, if we had 
not examples, as we have many to this effect, 
yet the surest mark to direct our ship by, is to 
look to Him, Whose habitation is in heaven, 
which will keep us between Scylla and Cha- 
rybdis all the way until we arrive at the port 
of Paradise. 

We stand in need of a guide, for how should 
the bhnd walk, unless he have a helper to lead 
him ? the weak and feeble stand, unless he 
have an assistant to stay him ? the wandering 

o o 

o c 


come into the way, unless he have a conductor 
to direct him ? We are bUnd, weak, wandering. 

XII. By the vision of St. John in the 
Apocalypse^ where he saw the hundred 
and forty-four thousand singing before the 
throne ■■, is understood the Church, and Christ 
the Head, and the duty of His members in 
following Him, in that it is mentioned, 
" They follow Him, whithersoever He goeth." 

Gideon said unto all his troops and com- 
pany, quod me videtis facere, facite ; oiu- 
Gideon saith the same unto all believers, 
" That which you see Me do, do yes." They 
cannot go amiss whose guide is the Way ; 
they cannot err whose director is the Truth ; 
they cannot perish whose preser\'er is the Life. 

If the children of Israel did learn many 
things of the Egyptians only because they 
dwelt amongst them, how much more should 
the faithful learn of Christ many more things. 
Who is said to dwell with them, and in them, 
Whom to follow, and Whom to know, is life 

r Apoc. xiv. 3. s Judges vii. 17. t John xvii.3. 

o c 



The first virtue to be learned in the life of 
Christ is humility. 

It is observed by those who excel in the art 

of elocution, that they never find less to speak 

than when the matter is most copious whereof 

they should speak. Such is the enumeration of 

Thy virtues, O Holy Christ, which, the more 

we consider of them, the more we wonder at 

them, and the longer we labour how to express 

them, the less able we find ourselves how to 

conceive them. In these, of all other, we 

stand amazed O most gracious Redeemer, at 

Thy humility. Who being God from everlasting, 

wouldest take Thy passage from the throne of 

glory, and here arrive in a valley of tears ; 

wouldest exile Thyself three and thirty years 

from Thy throne of Majesty. And what more ? 



o o 


wouldest be bom mana'. And what more? 
even as the meanest among men ! And what 
more ? wouldest be circumcised according to 
the Law, who wert above all law '' ! And what 
more ? wouldest become a servant, and so in 
subjection ! And what more ? wouldest be as 
an offending servant, and so suffer, albeit in 
Thyself far from all offence ! And what more ? 
wouldest sustain reproaches and obloquy in 
the world ! And what more ? wouldest undergo 
death, yea, a most ignominious death, being 
the God of life ! Here St. Austin crieth out, 
" O Son of God, whither did Thy humility 
descend'?" If Thy own love drew Thee to 
this, it was Thy goodness ; if Thy love to us, 
it was Thy gift. 

II. Adam transgressed the law of his 
Maker, and not only that, but Adam, and in 
Adam all his posterity, for we have not sinned 
by imputation, not only transgressed the law 
of his Maker, but wilfully rebelled against the 
wisdom of his God ; which wisdom was God 

I a Matt. ii. i. b Luke ii. 21. c S. Aug. med. sept. 

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the Son, the second Person in the Trinity. 
Adam, thou and all thy offspring, because all 
are accessary, shall rue this contumacy offered 
with so great indignity unto the Lord of 
heaven and earth. What saith our Jonas ? 
" For Me is this tempest raised*," O 
Father, for Me is Thy just wrath incensed, 
let Me be cast out into the sea ; for Me 
hath this ire begun, by Me let it have an end. 
Let Me be the Lamb slain, so these Israelites 
may be delivered. And must that poor pos- 
terity of Adam have a return unto their lost 
country by blood "^ ? Let Me be the virginal 
sacrifice. And wilt thou have an offering? 
Let Me be the Isaac that shall go to one of 
the mountains of Moriah^. Of the two 
goats, let Me be the scape-goat e, sent to 
wander in the wilderness. O the humility, and 
love, and bounty of the Son of God ! 

III. Let us behold a httle His estate and 
condition in the world ; when He was born, 
where was the place of His birth ? but at Beth- 

b Jonas i. 13. cApoc. v. 12. d Gen. xxii. 2. 
e Levit. xvi.8. 

O O 

O- ' — o 


lehem f, a little city. And where did the shep- 
herds? find Him ? but in a sorry cottage, 
Him whose seat was above the Cherubims ! 
When He chose disciples, whom did He 
choose but poor fishermen''? When He 
walked up and down, who were His asso- 
ciates but Publicans i, and for the most part 
the common people ? When He would take 
repast, where was His table but upon the plain 
ground^ ? What were His dainties, but bread 
and some few fishes ? Who were His guests, 
but a company of feeble and hungry creatures ? 
When He would take rest, where was His 
lodging, but at the stern of a shipl ? Was He 
not content to borrow a beast to ride on, a 
parlour to sup in, and a sepulchre to be 
buried in ? 

IV. Thou art deceived then, O incredulous 
Jew, that expectest in the promised Messias 
the pomp and glory of the world ; look over 
all the ancient prophecies that make mention 

fMatt. ii.i. gLukeii. i6. h Luke v. lo. 

i Luke XV. I. k Matt. xiv. 19. 1 Matt. viii. 24. 

o o 

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of Him, and thou shalt find it far otherwise. 
The Psalmist will tell thee that He shall be- 
come " a worm, and no man." The Prophet 
Isaiah, " He is despised and rejected of men ; 
He is a man full of sorrows'"." Zachariah, 
" Behold, the King Cometh in meek manner 11;" 
and so along. " Fear not, Herod, the loss of 
thy diadem, this King is bom," saith Ful- 
gentius, " not to succeed thee, but that all the 
world should believe on Himo." Fear not 
Him to become thy successor, believe in Him, 
and He will be thy Saviour. He came not to 
possess the kingdom of others, but to give the 
possession of His own kingdom to all believers. 
He came not by arms to subdue kings, but by 
dying to give them all a better kingdom in the 
life to come. He sought not others' glory, 
but for our sakes forsook His own ; He was 
hungry, and yet He fed many ; He was 
weary, and yet He refresheth all that are 
heavy laden ; He was dumb and opened not 
His mouth, and yet was the divine speech of 
God Himself ; He was of mean reputation 

m Isaiah lili. 3. n Zach. ix. 9. o Fulg. de Epiph. 

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amongst men, and yet was Lord of heaven 
and earth. 

V. If youask. When He was ? St. John saith, 
" In the beginning :" if you ask. What He 
was ? he tells us, " the Word was God :" If 
you ask. How He came ? he setteth it down in 
plain words ; " The Word became fleshi." 

If there were no other testimonies to prove 
His Deity, yet this were sufficient ; " Before 
Abraham was, I ami"." To Whom all power 
in heaven and earth is given s," this same is 
God : but this was given unto Christ, and 
when He was the Lord of all, He was content 
to become a servant unto all. Why, suppose 
we, did Christ our Saviour so much practise 
humility ? He well knew that as the beginning 
of all sin was by pride, so the beginning of all 
virtue was humility. 

VI. When His coming did now approach, 
2acharias was stricken dumb*, he prophesied, 
as if the prophecies of old now ceased. 
Behold Him who is the end of them all, 
of all prophecies ! John is more than a Prophet; 

q John i. i — J. r John viii. J8. s Matt, xxviii. i8. t Luke i. 23. 

o c 

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the Prophets say, He shall come ; John saith, 
" Behold the Lamb of God," as if. He is 
come. Behold Him from His cradle at Beth- 
lehem, to His cross at Jerusalem as a mirror 
of humihty. Now where are they that seek, 
and never cease seeking, for were not men 
happy if they could keep a mean in their 
music, which would make better harmony 
both before God and man ? Where are they, I 
say, that never leave seeking that mountain- 
like height, or superiority in the world ? Let 
them remember the world itself will have an 
end. How great, trow you, was the pride of 
man's heart, when God Himself must be 
humbled to teach Him humihty ? Where is 
that grace that " brings low every hill, and 
makes plain the roughest passages'^ ?" Where 
is our time spent in the school of Christ, 
whose scholars we are, since we took upon us 
in Baptism the name of Christians ? seeing 
we remember so little our Master's lesson, 
" Learn of Me to be humble and meek, take 
My yoke upon you^'." 

u Lukeiii.J. v Matt. xi. 39. 


O : C 


VII. We see the Lord of glory without 
glory. How lowly was He when His disciples 
were discoursing and debating the manner of 
superiority, He bringeth in amongst them a 
little child, setting him in the midst of them 
and saying ; " Unless you become as httle 
children, you are not meet for the kingdom of 
heaven "^^';" nay, which is more. Himself is 
down at His Apostles' feet, washing and 
wiping them. What humility was this ! but 
hence what would He have His Disciples 
learn ? " Ye call Me Master and Lord, and ye 
say well, for so I am ; if I then your Lord 
and Master have washed your feet, ye also 
ought to wash one another's feet. For I have 
given you an example, that you should do as I 
have done unto you''." 

Then learn humility, dear people, " by which 
virtue, the Church," saith St. Bernard, " is 
founded ;" of which virtue St. Austin thus 
speak eth ; " If you ask what is the first step 
in the way of truth ? I answer, humility. If 
you ask what is the second ? I say, humility. 

w Matt, xviii. 3. x John xiii. 13-15. 

o c 

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If you ask, what is the third ? I answer the 
same, humiUty, &c.>" These are the steps of 
degrees in the Temple, whereby we descend to 
the knowledge of ourselves, and ascend to the 
knowledge of God. 

Examples of humility we have many ; the 
poor Pubhcan humbly confessing his sins, and 
striking his breast, as if his repentance came 
from his very heait, found mercy z. The pro- 
digal son humbleth himself in his father's 
sights, and is received into favour with him. 
The Centurion was never more worthy than 
when he thought himself most unworthy 1>. 
Tlie humility of the blessed Virgin, ever a 
virgin, is known, blessed amongst women, to 
be His mother. Who was her Saviour, an am- 
bassador comes unto her from the King of 
heaven, with an high message. " Hail, freely 
beloved c;" how could not the mother of 
humility, and yet a tender virgin, but with 
bashful countenance, be told that she was full 
of grace, and that she was so highly accepted 

y S.Aiigxist. z Lukexvili. 13, 14. a Luke xv. 21. 
b Matt. viii. 8. c Luke 1. 28. 


O ( 


of God ? How did modest shamefacedness 
change her colour, so often as her imagination 
varied ; still humbly conceiving of herself ? 
How did she at last acknowledge the goodness 
of God with all submission. Behold the hand- 
maid of the Lord, with humble obeyance unto 
that God, who had respected and regarded, 
as she saith in her canticle, " the humbleness 
of his handmaiden!" Thus we see how 
much humility in all these hath pleased God. 
St. Paul speaking of saints, he caUeth him- 
self " the least of saints," but speaking of 
sinners, he calleth himself " the greatest of 

VIII. But to proceed with" the humiUty of 
Christ, being bom, it is said unto the shep- 
herds that were sent to see Him, And let 
this be a sign unto you, you shall find the 
child wrapped in swathing clothes, and laid in 
a manger. In seeking Christ, hoc vobis 
signum, you shall find him in humility ; He 
betook Him to a poor cottage, that He might 
teach us where we should sometimes see Him ; 

d I Tim. i.ij. 

O ( 



He was not born in the house of His parents, ; 
but in the way, to shew us that His kingdom 
was not of this world. Et hoc vobis signum, 
you shall find Him in humility. He be- 
came weak that we might be made strong; 
poor, that we might be made rich ; vile, that 
we might be made glorious ; the Son of Man ! 
that we might be made the sons of God. 
And this shall be a sign unto you, you shall 
findHim in humility. "Upon whom," saithGod, 
doth My Spirit rest, but upon the humble ? to 
whom do I look, but unto these ^ ? " Where 
did the dove light ? not upon the swelling 
waters, but cropt a branch of olive that had 
lain below. " I thank Thee, O Father," saith 
Christ our Lord, "that Thou hast hid these 
things from the wise and prudent, and hast 
opened them to babes and sucklings^." What 
are these wise and prudent, but the proud, 
wise in their own eyes ? " What are these 
babes and sucklings," saith St. Austin, " but 
the humble and lowly &?" Humble Moses 

e Isaiali Ixvi. 2. f Matt. xi. jj. g S. August, de Verb. Dom. 

D O 



is made a ruler of God's people''; humble 
Gideon, the least in his family, as himself 
confessed, was by God made" the greatest 
governor'. When Saul was lowly in his own 
eyes, God exalted him ; but when Saul forgot 
GodJ, then when He should have remembered 
him, Saul soon comes to ruin. 

IX. What art thou, O man, that liftest up 
thyself in pride ? Know, that pride cannot sit 
so high, but vengeance can sit above it to pull 1 
it down. " God and pride," saith St. Bernard, 
" cannot dwell in the same mind, which could 
not dwell in the same heaven ; and pride 
fallen from heaven, ascends no more from 
whence it is fallen''. 

Old records make mention that in Egypt 
there was found the picture of Sennacherib 1, of 
whose pride the Scripture maketh mention, 
having by his picture this inscription : " Learn 
by me to fear God;" as if they would shew 
the cause and overthrow of Sennacherib's 
pride; as thus, Sennacherib of pride feared 

h Exod. iii. lo. i Judges vi. ij. j i Sam. xv. 17. 
k S. Bernard, in medit. 1 2 Kings xviii. 20. 

O ( 

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' not God. We are wont of all other, to call 
t proud men and women fools, because they 
I know neither God nor themselves ; and not 
I without cause ; they often exalt themselves in 
f their riches, in their honours, in their learniiag, 
in their beauty, and what not, as if they were 
not so much as beholden to God for any thing 
they have. Plutarch saith, that one Crates, a 
\ mean fellow, waxed so proud, and began to 
I grow into such admiration of himself, because 
i he had hurt Cyrus in the knee, that in the' 
I end, through very pride, he became stark mad. 
: The church stories make mention of Arius, a 
I priest in the church of Alexandria, " a man of 
I a sharp wit, that of very pride he fell to fear- 
E ful heresy." Let this be remembered and 
! written in the tables of our hearts, " God 


\ resisteth the proud 1." 

I X. The more direct the sun is over us, the 

■ lesser is the shadow ; the more God's grace is 

■ over us and in us, the lesser is our shadow of 
I pride and self love. Had we Christian hearts 
: to consider the humility of our Redeemer, and 

1 1 James iv. 6. 

i) O 



how far He was from our haughty and dis- 
dainful dispositions, it wovdd pull down our 
Pharisaical humours ; " I am not as this 
man^i/' saith the Pharisee. 

Let every Christian pray with St. Bernard, 
" Thou that givest grace to the humble, grant 
me Lord to be humble." 

XL The mother of Zebedee's children 
comes unto our Saviour, as a suitor for her 
sons, that they might have superiority and sit 
next Him in His kingdom" ; she as not fully 
illuminated, thought that Christ should bear a 
state in the world, sit as a King in princely 
authority, and therefore would take her time, 
and lay for promotion for her sons, but all 
this while she was far wide. Christ, as He 
never affected superiority in Himself, so did 
He teach it to others, that those who were 
greatest should be as the least, and the 
chiefest as he that served; for He Himself 
came not into this world "to be ministered 
unto, but to minister unto others «." Where- 
unto His doctrine accorded, when He pro- 

m Luke xviii. ii. n Matt. xx. 21. o Matt. xx. a8. 

O— -( 

fi — o 


nounced them blessed, who were " poor in 
■ spirit?;" His reprehension accorded, when 
[ lie dishked their manner, who were wont to 
thrust and strive for the highest places at 
feasts <1 and other assemblies ; He that con- 
i tented Himself with so mean and lowly a 
' condition, was able with one word to have 
shewed as much state as ever Solomon did, 
j when all the world in a manner did admire him ; 
i but we see how much He respected humility. 
i Xn. Wherefore, if we will follow our 
I heavenly Leader, then must we humble our- 
selves. More safe it is to be upon the 
pavement, where we may walk surely, than to 
i be chmbing unto the pinnacles of the temple, 
where and whence we may take a fall. Hu- 
mility is assuredly the very honour of honour '. 
St. Peter in humility and fear craveth distance 
from Christ, " Lord go from me, for I am a 
sinful man." Esther, that good woman, 
made a good protestation in her prayer, " God, 
Thou knowest I detest the sign of pride ^" 

p Matt. V. 3. Luke xlv. 7. r Luke xviii.14. 

.^ 8 Esther xiv. i<. , 


o — c 


" Lord," saith David, " I am not high minded, 
I have no proud looks*." The Spartans, 
heathen men, were honoured in the world 
for their great humility and obedience. The 
counsel of the angel unto Hagar, may be 
counsel befitting every Christian ; " O Hagar, 
go humble thyself." It is a temptation of 
Satan, saith Macarius, " thou art better than 
others, wiser than others, worthier than 
others ;" hearken not unto it^. 

XIII. When Rebecca understood it was 
Isaac who came walking upon the ground, 
down she comes from her camel and covereth 
herself with a veil ; she thought it unseemly, 
herself to be on high, and see her spouse 
content to go on foot below\ When we con- 
sider how our Lord and Master was so lowly 
and meek, what should we else do, but be 
ashamed of our conceits, come down from 
lofty and swelling desires ; remembering that 
of St. James : " Humble yourselves under the 
mighty hand of God, and He will exalt you^." 

t Ps. cxxxi. I. u Maca. horn. 27. v Gen.xxiv. 64. 
w James iv, 7. 

o — ( 

— o 


And again, " Humble yourselves in the sight of 
God*." In the sight of God ; that is, in your 
I hearts, for God seeth our hearts, and He will 
1 exalt you in due time ; here, or hereafter, 

! exalt He will. 



What we learn by Christ's leading into the wilderness, 
His fasting and temptation there. 

It cannot but add courage and comfort 
unto the soldier, when he seeth his captain in 
the forefront of the battle, to encounter and 
I foil the enemy. Who is not animated in mind, 
I when he reads or hears of Christ's conflict 
I and conquest with and against the professed 
! enemy of us all ? Men are wont to read with 
delight, and mark with attention, the magna- 
j nimity of great champions, shewed in assault- 
ing their enemies in war ; how they have gone 
, forth in the day of battle, and quitted them- 
! selves like men, for the saving of their lives 
j and liberties ; but what combat more delight- 

' X Ver. 10. 

. o 



ful unto the Christian man to observe, than 
this of our Saviour, who undertook hand to 
hand that GoUath, which did upbraid not only 
the host of Israel, but also the God of Israel''. 

II. For the better observation hereof, we 
are here to consider four things : first, Christ's 
baptism ; secondly, His departure into the 
wilderness ; thirdly. His fasting ; and last of 
all. His conflict and conquest with, and over 
the tempter and temptation. In the first, we call 
to mind our regeneration in the fountain of 
grace ; inthe second, our departure from the van- 
ities of the world ; in the third, the mortifica- 
tion of the flesh ; in the fourth, how to resist 
and overcome the professed enemy of our souls. 

If we respect our regeneration in the foun- 
tain of grace, we look upward, where we see 
heaven opening, and hear a voice testifying, 
as of Christ, so of every faithful Christian, 
' ' This is My beloved Son, in Whom I am well 
pleased*'." If we respect the second, our 
departure from the vanities of the world, we 
hear that of our Saviour ; " I have chosen you 

a I Sara. xvii. lo. b Matt. iii. 17. 

O C 



out of the worldc." If the third, that of the 
Apostle ; " Take no thought for the flesh, to 
fulfil the lusts of it''." If the fourth, that of 
St. John ; " And they overcame by the blood 
of the Lambe." " Watch," saith St. Peter, 
" for your adversary the devil, as a roaring 
lion, goeth about, seeking whom he may 
devour^" Why doth the shepherd watch, 
but because the wolf watcheth ? 

III. And to pass over our Saviour's bap- 
tism, with His departure into the wilderness, 
let us here take diligent heed to our Lord 
Jesus' blessed deeds ; for here He giveth us 
example of many great virtues ; namely, in 
that He is solitary, and fasteth. Now, as the 
ark of God went before the people in the 
wilderness s, not only to shew them the way, 
but also to strike a fear and terror into the 
hearts of their enemies ; the same hath Christ 
done for us all, and what He wrought for us. 
He doth by His grace work in us. Having 
entered our names into His family, we have 

c John xvii. i6. d Rom, xiii. 14. e Apoc. xii. ir. 
f I Pet. V. 8. g Exod. xiii. 2t. 

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the title and testimony to be His children ; 
having this title and testimony, we are led by 
His Spirit ; being led by His Spirit, we leave 
the world ; leaving the world, we fall to 
fasting, and other exercises of piety ; in these 
exercises of piety, the tempter will assail us ; 
the tempter assailing us, we " look unto 
Christ," who is gone before us, and hath 
subdued our enemies. 

IV. By Christ's fasting, we see how to arm 
and defend ourselves against this our adver- 
sary, that the flesh may be obedient unto the 
spirit, the spirit to grace, and so to say as 
David, " I come forth unto thee in the name 
of my Godb." This fasting doth very much 
help the soul, which is the chiefest agent in 
this battle, that soul and body both together, 
may withstand the force of the enemy. When 
two are combating, if one step in to assist 
either party, the party assisted is likeliest to 
prevail. Fasting helps the soul to pour out 
her supplications more feelingly and fervently ; 

h I Sam. xvii. 45. 

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Christ helpeth our fasting, and we are strength- 
ened against the force of the tempter. 

Physicians can tell us, than fasting, there is 
nothing better for the body ; and divines can 
shew us, than religious fasting nothing is 

! better for the soul : in this combat it is not 
the worst policy to weaken the enemy before 
we fight with him : the flesh is an enemy. 
For this holy exercise of fasting, it beseems 
none more than Christians. First, because 
they are men, not brute beasts, led by sensu- 
ality ; and therefore those whom temperance 
should guide. Secondarily, that amongst men 
they are Nazarites, set apart to serve God, 
who are to live not according to the flesh, but 
according to the Spirit', and therefore are not 
to pass their lives as epicures, nor stufi^ them- 
selves like woolpacks, and say with the epicures, 
" Let us eat and drink, to-morrow we shaH 
dieJ." Tliirdly, for that they are men now in 
the field, and besieged daily with a hateful ad- 
versary, and therefore should be sober and 

I watching unto prayer. Fourtlily, for that 

I i Rom. viil. i. j i Cor. xv. 32. 

y _o 



they are men, and are to apply themselves 
to works of mortification'' ; they fear they 
have abused God's creatures, therefore they 
often think themselves unworthy to use them, 
and so abstain from them. To proceed ; 

V. Christ fasted forty days, and was armed 
against the tempter ; Christ fasted forty days 
and forty nights, whence we may gather that 
we must be thus armed against this enemy, as 
well in the days of prosperity, as nights of 
adversity. Who overcame the host of the 
Assyrians ? Fasting Judith 1. Who mitigated 
the wrath ready to come upon a great city ? 
Fasting Ninevites"". Who prevailed for the 
preservation of the people ? Fasting Moses". 
Who stayed the intended destruction of many 
innocents ? Fasting Esther «. That thou 
mayest learn, O man, how necessary a thing 
fasting is, against the enemies bodily and 
ghostly, see Christ our Saviour after His 
baptism, led of the Spirit into the wilderness q, 
where He fasted : he which brought ruin unto 

k I Pet. V. 8. 1 Judith ix. m Jonah iii. }. 
I n Exod. xvii. II. o Esther xiv. a. qMatt. iv. l. 

O- -( 

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I the state of man, began the same with eating ; 

but He that brought recovery unto the ruin- 

, ated state of Adam, began the same by fasting. 

t He in whom we all feU, did yield by faUing 

i into temptation ; but He in whom we all rose, 

I and being risen r, are still preserved from 

falling, did raise us up by vanquishing the 

tempter, and temptation. 

VI. When one cureth a sick man, he com- 
mands him not to do again in any case the 
thing that procured his sickness ; Christ hath 
wrought our cure, and prescribes us a diet ; 
" Take heed that your hearts be not overcome 
with surfeiting s," and thus shews us what is 
hurtful to our health. If we tender our wel- 
fare, we must keep what He prescribes us. 

The sins of Sodom amongst other were these 
pride, and fulness of bread ; which fulness* 
was the very fuel of foul iniquity that followed. 
We must be either Ninevites or Sodomites; 
Ninevites, and so those that fasted and prayed 
that God would have mercy upon them for 
their sins ; or Sodomites, and so those who 

riCor. XV. 22. sLukexx. 34. t Ezekiel xvi. 49. , 

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lived in all voluptuousness, and were con- 
sequently consumed in their sins. This is a 
probable rule, " The more abstinent at the 
table, the more continent in the chamber." 

Again, Moses that was fasting saw God 
above in the mount" ; the people that were 
eating and drinking committed idolatn* be- 
neath in the valley. As fasting is a most 
excellent means of sharpening our devotion to 
God, so on the contrary satiety and fulness 
doth often cause us to forget Him. " They 
were filled," saith the Prophet, "as in their 
pastures, and their hearts were exalted, there- 
fore have they forgotten Me v." 

" They who are Christ's, have crucified the 
flesh w," and this crucifying of the flesh is for 
the soul's safety. The champion loves his 
buckler well, and yet for all that he cares not 
how it be hacked and hewed, so his body be 
defended. It is no matter for chastising the 
outward man, so the man within may be kept 
safe and sound. 

VII. Nourish the flesh, and nourish the 

u Deut.ix. 12. V Hoseaxiii. 6. w Gal. v. 24. 

o c 

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I vices of the flesh ; nourish the flesh, and give 

[thy very enemy a weapon to hurt thee. 

i What more seemly than a temperate man ? 

' What more unseemly than the intemperate, 
who is compared unto the hrute beasts, the 
wolf, the bear, and such like ? " There is 
not, " saith the wise man, " any great hope in 
him that loveth banqueting." 

But how abstinence is a mean to bring us 
to many virtues, it appeareth in those three 
children, who being content with pulse and 
water, increased in wisdom and understanding, 
above all the delicious wantons that were in 
Babylon ; " and so necessary instruction," 
saith one, " Christ would not only teach us by 
words, but by example also." 

VIII. What a goodly Christian art thou 
that disdainest fasting, and seest how the Son 
of God endured such hunger for thy salvation ! 
Should that flesh fast that knew not how to 
rebel against the Spirit, and should not thine, 
that knoweth to do nothing else ? But what 
wilt thou say, Christ fasted forty days and 
forty nights, therefore should I endeavour to 

D- O 

o — c 


fast SO long ? A thing impossible ! What logic 
call they this, -which is a reasoning with- 
out reason, and comes from the school of 
carnal security ? Though we fast not as Christ 
fasted, should we do nothing at all ? Though 
we cannot be as strong as Samson, shall we 
therefore languish in infirmity ? Though no 
meats are unclean of themselves, or if some 
superstitiously put a diflFerence between time 
and time, meat and meat, is there no order to 
be observed ; no obedience at all to the Church 
to be shewed ? Is this fasting a matter only of 
policy, which serveth first of all to shew our 
sorrow for sins past; secondly, our fear of 
punishment to come ; thirdly, which is for the 
castigation of the body, and in the fourth 
place for the humiliation of the soul ? 

If we respect the first of these ends, so did 
the people fast". If the second, so did the 
men of Nineveh fast 7. If the third, so did 
the Apostle fastz. If the last, so did the Pro- 
phet fast, saying ; "I have humbled myself 
with fasting a." True it is, all our life should 

X Judges XX. 26. y Jonah lii. 4. i i Cor. ix. 37. a Ps. xxxv. 13. 

6- c 

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[be a time of humiliation, yet the frailty of our 
I nature will hardly be brought to some set 

time of severer cogitations ; necessary it is, 
jit should be so, lest sin get headstrong and 

unconquerable ; again, God hath made the sea 

as well as the land, and a time there should be 

to use the creatures thereof with thanksgiving 

to do well. 

IX. Can the world better gratify the old 
i enemy of man, than to make light of fasting, 

which Tertullian calleth " a work of reverence 

to God^ ?" Should we carelessly, besides 
1 those many precepts and examples, pass over 
j this one example of our Saviour's fasting, 
f which being duly considered, doth minister 
I much matter worthy our Christian observation ? 
i " Christ," saith St. Ambrose, " wrought our 
I salvation, not by prayer, but by fasting, and 
I He fasted not to deserve grace to Himself, but 

for our instruction"^ ;" " for them that Bay we 
! should not fast," let them shew me, saith the 
}' same Father, " why Christ fasted, but that His 

fasting should be an example to us." 

b TertuU. de laud. Jesu. c S. Ambros. torn. 3. Epist. 10. 

.) o 

o c 


And here fitly is the number of forty days 
mentioned in Christ's fasting ; " because the 
number of the forty days," saith St. Jerome, 
" is oftentimes in Holy Scripture apphed unto a 
time of penitency and affliction for our sins 'J." 

Upon the decreasing of the flood, after 
forty days Noah opened the window of the 
Arke. Forty years wandered the people in 
the wilderness f. Forty days had the Ninevites 
to repent them of their sins?. Forty days 
slept Ezekiel upon his right side*», sor- 
rowing for the tribe of Judah. Forty days 
fasted Elijahi when he fled before Jezebel. 
Forty days fasted Moses when he received the 
Law upon the mount '^. Moses for the Law, 
EHjah for the Prophets, Christ for the Gos- 
pel; "who all communed together," saith 
St. Austin, " and accorded in one." Three 
sufficient witnesses to authorize fasting, and 
the number of forty days fasting, " which 
time," saith St. Jerome, " the Church hath 


(1 S. Hieron. in Ezech. e Gen. viii. 6. f Joshua v. 6. 
g Jonabiii.4. h Ezek. iv. 6. i i Kings xix. 8. 

k Exod. xxxiv. 28. ^ 

p o 


kept since the time of the Apostles them- 
selves^." "We have the days of Lent," 
' saith St. Cyril, "consecrated to fasting'." 
" All our hfe-time," saith St. Austin, " we 
should consider our course set before us, but 
chiefly in the days dedicated to abstinence"'." 
Wherefore considering the excellence of 
Christ's example, the devotion of the ancient 
Fathers, to both which we may well think 
novelty should give place, we do well in well 
observing the time of Lent. 

X. And now come we unto the conflict 
itself. The tempter saith, " If Thou be the 
Son of God," as yet doubtful of His Deity. 
When he heard that a virgin had conceived 
and borne a Son", then he thought He was 
the Son of God : but when he perceived she 
was espoused to Joseph, then he thought He 
was the son of man : when he heard the 
Angels make that heavenly melody at His 
birth o, then he thought He was the Son of 

k S. Hioron. con. Mont. Nos secundum traditionem Aposto- 

lorum unicam observamus. 1 Ciiiadrages. Cyril, in Luc. 

, m S.Aug. Serm. 64. deTemp. in Matt. i. 20 — 23. o Lukeii. 14. 


o < 


God ; but when he saw the tender Babe in 
Bethlehem, with Mary His mother laid in a 
mangerP, then he thought He was the son of 
man : when he saw Him circumcised, then 
he thought there appeared a plain sign of His 
humanity 1 ; but when he heard the name of 
Jesus, then he began to suspect His Deity : 
when he saw Him baptized with the mul- 
titude, he thought sure He was the son of 
man J" ; but when the voice came from Heaven, 
then he heard otherwise, to wit, that He was 
the Son of God s. When he saw Him fasting 
so long, and not hungering, then he thought 
He was the Son of God : but when at the end 
of forty days He hungered, then he thought 
He was the son of man. And therefore in 
the first place he assays Him by eating, as 
man, with a conditional " if," to have Him 
shew His power, whether He were or no the ' 
Son of God. 

But our Saviour, when He had fasted forty 
days and forty nights, He proceeded no 

p Luke ii. l6. q Luke ii. 21. r Matt. iii. ij. 

B Matt. iii. 17. 

o — 

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further ; " then He hungered," that the power 

of His Deity as yet might be hid, seeing that 
I Moses and Elias, men, had aforetime fasted so 
; long. Forty days without hunger, was not of 

man, and yet afterward to hunger, was not of 
I God, and therefore the devil, as doubtful what 

to do, tempted Him after this manner ; "If 
■ Thou art the Son of God," that natural Son, 
\ and so equal to Him in power, " command 
, that these stones may be made bread." There is 
[ a voice that hath testified of Thee from heaven, 

that Thou art the Son of God ; canst Thou 
\ live by this title or testimony ? Thy Father, 
I either He sees not Thy distress, or He will 
r not help Thee ; the best way is help Thyself, 
i and look Thou to Thine own safety, while the 

! voice is testifying. Thou art starving. 
XI. In this, or the like temptation, great is 
the subtlety of the old serpent, wherein, first, 
he moves to distrust God's Providence ; 
secondarily, to trust in our own power ; and, 
thirdly, to neglect fasting and meditation, the 
exercises of true piety. " Command that 
these stones may be made bread," as if He 


O ( 


would at once both try Him, whether He were 
God, as also allure Him as man. 

But the tempter meeting with Christ, met 
with his match, for he could not gather the 
certainty of either. " Man," saith he, " shall 
not live by bread only, but by every word that 
proceedeth out of the mouth of God*." And 
here we have example by our Lord Jesus to 
withstand the vice of gluttony, with which 
j vice the tempter assayeth our Saviour ; here 
i we must begin, if we will overcome the 
1 tempter ; first, we must labour by abstinence 
to have victory, or be overcome ourselves. 

Xn. Doth the tempter thus leave ? No, he 
assays Him again ; this man fasteth, liveth 
devoutly in the wilderness, is not carried away 
with the temptation of eating, surely He is 
good, and better than others ! May He not be 
brought to affect glory ? this affectation of 
glory is wont to move the best. Now he taketh 
Him to the pinnacle of the Temple, setteth 
Him on high ; unto the Temple, a show of 
holiness ; on high, a place of eminency ; 

t Deut. viii.3. 

O ( 

[ o 


an hundred to one, thinks he, if a show 
of holiness, if a place of dignity, is not a 
^ean to tempt ; and now what saith he in 
the second place : "If Thou be the Son of 
Giod, cast Thyself down," being the Son of 
God, Thou canst by Thine own power save 
Thyself; if not. Thou hast the ministry of 
Angels to save Thee ; the Scripture itself 
saith it, " He shall give His Angels charge 
over Thee;" and therefore doubt not, throw 
Thyself down. Casting Thyself down, and 
the Angels saving Thee, all the world will 
give Thee applause, and Thou shalt be so 
glorious as never was any. 

So we see the drift of this temptation, 
when the tempter cannot make men distrust in 
God, then it is his manner to try to make 
^ them presume of Him. When intemperance 
f doth not take place, when a mean estate beneath 
doth not seduce, yet to be aloft, the tempter 
thinks it a fitter opportunity of prevailing. 

But what doth He say ? I will cast Thee 

i down ? No, but, " Cast Thyself down." This 

is to shew us, that Satan can hurt none, unless 

^_ o 

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any by consenting to temptation do hurt him- 
self ; for he that desireth that all might fall, 
can persuade, but not cast down ; his property 
is to suggest, but our part it is to resist his 
suggestions : a diabolical voice truly provoketh 
to descend, not to ascend ; the tempter saith 
in desperate manner. Cast thyself down ; but 
God saith, in hope of mercy, raise thyself up. 

XIII . In that he allegeth, or rather mis- 
allegeth Holy Writ, it teacheth us with the 
men of Berea, to try whether it be so or no". 
We see it hath been the manner of deceivers, 
following this old deceiver, to forge evidence, 
" and sometimes," saith Origen, " to play the 
subtle pirates, who set up hghts near dan- 
gerous rocks, that the traveller repairing 
thither in hope of safety, may by that means 
be entrapped and taken of his enemies." In 
this fashion, perverse men, to strengthen their 
fancies, use also to deal, and force Scripture 
to the bent of their own opinions. 

But consider we a little more this place 
of Scripture here alleged. The Psalm v, say 

u Acts xvii. II. V Ps. xci. 



^ o 


the ancient Fathers, concemeth God's pro- 
tection of the faithful man, over whom He 
hath appointed the ministry of Angels. Now 
for Christ, Who was God from everlasting. He 
rather keeps the Angels, than the Angels Him, 
and therefore no way was it appliable unto 
Him : " They shall keep thee ;" that is to say, 
thee, O faithful man, who art frail and weak 
in thyself, " lest at any time thou dash thy foot 
against a stone," or fall away, being striken at 
the stone of offence. So in the first place the 
text is not rightly understood, if we respect 
the state of the righteous man, as. the Prophet 
meaneth : yea, here is a contrary sense ; " He 
shall keep thee in all thy ways ;" true, but 
not in all thy presumptions ; " He shall give 
His Angels charge over thee ;" well, shalt 
thou therefore tempt God the Lord of Angels ? 
Christ answered rather, " Thou shalt not tempt 
the Lord thy God." In the third verse of the 
same Psalm, it is said ; " He shall defend thee 
from the snare of the hunter ;" and in the thir- 
teenth verse, " Thou shalt go upon the lion 
I and adder :" both which places concern our 

o o 

9 c 


preservation from the tempter, which he 
leaveth out, and only inserteth an imperfect 
sentence, which Christ soon answereth ; 
" Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy Godx :" 
that is to say, man shall not tempt God ; as 
for example, when God giveth a man a pair of 
stairs, and other means for his safety, why should 
he tempt God, or cast himself down headlong? 
XIV. Hath the devil yet done tempting ? 
No, he is not so soon cast off; now he taketh 
our hlessed Saviour into an exceeding high 
mountain, and there sheweth Him the king- 
doms of the world, vdth the glory of them, at 
once making a large promise to bestow them 
all, who had not authority to dispose of any 
one. He will give kingdoms, but upon such a 
condition, as should make any good dealer 
break off from coping with so bad a bargainer. 
The condition is, he must be worshipped ; 
What ! should man forsake the worship of 
God, and bestow that upon any but God, for 
riches or kingdoms themselves ? these were 
dear riches and kingdoms indeed ; *' No," 

X Deut. vi. i6. 

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saith Balaam, " I cannot do it, if he would give 
, me a house full of silver and goldY." 
|i XV. Hitherto hath our Saviour shewed no 
I sign of His Deity ; the tempter takes Him to 

be man, and therefore tempts Him as man ; in 

the desert, where is hunger, he tempts Him 
I to gluttony ; upon the Temple, where was the 
! chair of Doctors, he tempts Him to vain- 

glory ; upon the high mountain, whence 

Nvorldly things are seen, he tempts Him to 
j covetousness, which is indeed, as the Apostle 
; saith, "idolatry;" for here he would have 

All in vain was it to shew Christ the glory 

of the world. Who beheld it no otherwise than 
.physicians are wont to do ulcers and diseases 

of their patients ; he ofFereth earthly king- 
idoms to Him, Who had in His own hands to 
;bestow earthly and an heavenly ; he would 
Ihave worship of Him, Whom all the Angels do 
'worship, and at Whose very sight he himself 
[did tremble. 
i And here is to be noted, that by this tempt- 

y Numb. xxii. t8. 

c __o 

o 9 


ation upon the mountain, thou mayest learn, 
that when thou art great and high, the devil 
setteth before thee great and high desires, and 
would have thee fall down that thou mayest 
accomplish them. " This ambition," saith 
St. Ambrose, " hath a domestical danger ; that 
it may rule, it serves ; that it may be honour- 
ed, it bends and bows in giving honour ; 
while it would be above others, it becomes 
inferior to others. 

XVI. In this temptation consider we 
Christ's answer unto the tempter ; " Thou 
shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only 
shalt thou served." And this answer Christ 
giveth him with authority, commanding him to 
depart, at which commandment the tempter 
leaveth Him. 

Now concerning the last assault, in that our 
Saviour sharply rejects him, when once he 
begins to mention God's worship, we are 
taught to bear injuries offered to ourselves, 
but no way to tolerate injury offered unto 
God. " For the other temptations," saith 

d Matt. ir. lo. 

o c 

o o 

liEARN TO LIVE. 123 

St, Chrysostom, " 'Command these stones to 
be made bread ;' and, ' Cast Thyself down,' 
Christ was not so much moved, did not 
rebuke the tempter ; but when he began to 
meddle with God's worship, and speak of 
casting that away upon worldly glory, Christ 
sends him packing with a vade Sathana, 
' Avoid Satan,' and tells him, for worship, it 
was God's, and none but God's z." 

XVII. Against the temptation of intemper- 
ance, we have by the example of Christ to 
learn these things ; first, not so much to re- 
spect the life of the body, as the life of the soul ; 
" For man doth not live by bread only, but by 
every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of 
God." Should we regard the house, and let the 
householder pine away in misery ? Should the 
servant be adorned, and the master himself 
become an abject ? Secondly, we learn not to 
yield to any persuasion of the tempter, for the 
necessaries of a frail, momentary, and transi- 
tory hfe. Thirdly, that for the want of bodily 
sustenance, we should not break out into im- 

z S. Chrysost. horn, in iv. Matt. 

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patience, but depend upon God's providence, 
and use the order that God hath ordained to 
maintain His creatures. 

XVIII. Against the temptation of vain- 
glory, we learn not to believe the embracings of 
this deceitful Joab, who, when he knows any 
one to be given to fasting, or any other exercise 
of Christian piety, he would make him as the 
boasting Pharisee, to say with contempt, " I 
am not as yonder Pubhcan, I fast twice in the 
week." We see also, when he hath men on 
high, how there he moveth them to tempt 
God by presumption, but we learn also in this 
case what to do : I am a man, and therefore 
can otherwise descend, than by casting down 
myself: I will not tempt God, and neglect 
the means He hath ordained for my pre- 
servation, for a little glory ; His Angels 
guard me in my ways, not in my pre- 

XIX. Against the temptation of desiring 
the greatest things in the world, I learn to 
prefer God's worship before all the world, and 
so to break off bv His good grace from all 

O-Ji '■ C 



I evil motions of the tempter. Against all 

i temptations in general, I learn first by this of 

our Saviour, to resist temptations in the first 

j assault, not to suffer temptations to enter the 

door of our heart, but to resist them without 

the gate at the first knock. St. Basil likeneth 

I the tempter unto the leopard *, which hath 

! such natural hatred against men, that if he see 

! but a man's picture, he is ready to fly upon it, 

: and all to tear it. Such is the enmity of the 

red dragon whom Christ vanquished, if he see 

I but a picture or resemblance of Christ in a 

i good man, he is ready to rage against it ; we 

see him assaulting, but not prevailing ; assault 

he can, overcome he cannot, unless men 


XX. By the order of these temptations, it 
is manifest that the tempter first beginneth 
with lighter, then cometh to greater. First, 
he began with eating, then he goeth to the 
affectation of glory, and last of all, falleth to 
flat idolatry : in all these, Christ as we see, 
meeteth with the temptation in the beginning, 

a Basil, in aliquot script, loc. horn. 21. 




kills the serpent in the egg, nips vice in the 
blade, strangles sin in the first motion. " For 
the old serpent," saith St. Jerome, " is slip- 
pery, and unless we keep out the head of 
suggestion, he will get in his body of consent, 
of delight, of custom, of nature, and all." 

XXI. In these temptations, Christ repaireth, 
as we see, to a scriptum est, " it is written," 
the offensive armour He useth, is the sword of 
the Spirit ; a special lesson for our Christian 
learning. If we are tempted with a desire of 
sinful delights, we may call to mind we have a 
scriptum est to answer this temptation, " not 
in chambering and wantonness''." If we be 
tempted with an inordinate desire of riches, 
we have a scriptum est, " Godhness is great 
gain, if a man be content with that he hathc." 
If we be tempted with a vain opinion of our- 
selves, we have a scriptum est, " Behold, I am 
but earth and ashes'^ !" If we be tempted 
with a carelessness of our estate and condition, 
we have a scriptum est ; "It is appointed 

b Rom. xiii. 13. c tTim. vi. 6. d Gen. xvlil. 97. 



for all men once to die, and after that comes 
1 judgment^," 

I Furthermore, we see Christ would not turn 
f stones into bread, to teach us not to consent 
[ unto the tempter in any thing, no, though it 
have a show of good. There were many high 
places in Jerusalem, yet the temptation of the 
casting down was from the Temple, the best, 
the hoUest estate of all. 

Christ would not cast Himself down, though 
He might have saved Himself without the 
ministry of Angels ; to shew us not to seek 
supernatural means when God doth lend us 
natural. We tempt Him when we seek health 
without a medicine, or victory without a 
combat. We tempt Him when we may by 
reason or counsel avoid some evil, and will 
notwithstanding explore His power ; and last 
of all, we tempt Him when we inquire too far 
into His wisdom, or require that of Him un- 
lawfully, which He is wont to offer by means. 

XXH. Last of all, we see that Christ 
would not hearken unto the temptation of 

e Heb. ix. 27. 

D O 



windy praise, -whereby the tempter seeks to 
draw many from God and godliness ; nor 
unto a desire of having kingdoms of the 
world, whereby he is wont to draw many for a 
great deal less, and need not be at cost to 
offer so much to withdraw them from God's 
worship. . What Christ did, we see, and hence 
all may learn what we should do ; of this we 
may be sure, seeing the tempter spared not 
Christ, he will not spare Christians ; his pro- 
perty it is to tempt, our part it is to withstand 
his temptations. 



What we learn by Christ's great compassion towards 

the distressed state of man, and His continnal 

doing good in the world. 

When we enter into consideration of the 
great compassion of the Son of God towards 
the distressed state of mankind, we find it a 
work of unspeakable mercy. In the creation 
O man, God gave thee thyself; but in the 
redemption, God gave thee Himself. In the 


: — O 


creation God gave an esse natura, " a being in 
.nature," but in the redemption, an esse gratia, 
i"a being in grace." In the creation of all 
things necessary for man, only six days were 
passed ; but in man's redemption, three and 
thirty years were fully expired. In the creation, 
i" He spake few things ;" in the redemption of 
iman, " He said many things. He did many 
things, He suffered many things." 
' Adam in the state of innocencv, for per- 
jfection left all his posterity far behind ; his 
reason was uncorrupt, his understanding pure, 
ihis will obedient ; he was for knowledge of 
'heavenly matters an excellent Divine ; for 
insight into the nature of things, a deep 
[Philosopher ; for power, he had a whole world 
|to command ; nothing which was necessary was 
inow wanting unto him, that when he saw he 
had all things which he could desire in earth, he 
i might then turn his desires towards Heaven. 
jHe hath one precept among these many 
jblessings, that is, to keep the Law of his God ; 
ithis one precept is most undutifuUy broken. 
Adam ! unless Mercv step in, thv felicity and 

^ : : : — o 

o c 


the felicity of all thy posterity is at an end, 
therefore behold a helper, when thou art now 
in the paws of the lion ; " The seed of the 
woman shall bruise the serpent's head." Here 
the serpent's hope is turned into a curse, and i 
in Christ, who was to come, Adam's dread is 
turned into a blessing. Behold love, which 
affected Adam, more than Adam did affect 
himself ! 

II. Now Christ, the promised Seed and 
Saviour being come. He compareth Himself 
unto that Samaritan, who took compassion 
upon a poor wounded man^. This wounded 
man may resemble human nature ; the Priest 
and the Levite that passed by, signify the 
offerings and sacrifices of the Law ; the Sa- 
maritan, Christ, who beholding him in this 
case with the eye of mercy, bound up his 
wounds, poured in the softening oil of grace, 
and searching wine of contrition, layeth him 
upon his own nature and righteousness thereof, 
taketh out the two Testaments, bringeth him 
to the holy hostel of His Church, cora- 

f Luke X. 33. 




mandeth His Priests to take care and charge 
of him, and promiseth that one day they shall 
find they have not lost their labour. 

III. " In consideration then of man's fall," 

saith St. Bernard, " Mercy began to knock at 

the bowels of God the Father, which Mercy 

I brought with her Peace as a companion on the 

I one side, on the other, Truth accompanied with 

Justice ; Truth began to approach and con- 

■ tradict Mercy. Between these sisters began a 

' long controversy ; Mercy saith unto God, " O 

[ God, this creature of Thine, man, would have 

I compassion shewed him, being now so miser- 

i able as he is." "No," saith Truth and 

I Justice, " Lord fulfil Thy word ; Adam, that 

\ day thou eatest, thou shalt die;" Mercy re- 

; plies, " Thou hast made me Mercy, but if 

i Thou shew no mercy I am not ;" on the 

I contrary. Truth saith, " and I am Truth, and 
unless I take place, I abide not for ever." 
God the Father commits the deciding of all 
i unto God the Son, before whom Truth and 
i Mercy speak the same things. Truth saith, 
|l •' If Adam perish not, I perish ;" and Mercy 

b— _o 

o— . ^c 


saith, " If Adam be not conserved, I languish." 
Well, let death be good, and let both have that 
they desire ; let Adam die, and yet for all that 
let Adam have mercy and live. O admirable 
wisdom ! but how can death be good, seeing 
the death of sinners is worst of all ? Let one 
be found which of love may die, and yet is 
not subject to death. The motion seemed 
good, but where may any such be found ? 
Truth seeks about the earth and cannot find 
any one clean without sin, no, not an infant of 
one day ; Mercy goeth up to heaven, and 
there finds none that hath this love as to leave 
life for sinners ; these .sisters return at the 
time appointed, not finding that which was re- 
quired. At the last Peace calling them aside, 
and comforting them, saith ; " You know 
there is none that doeth good, no not oneS;" 
He that gave you this counsel, when all is 
done, must surely give you help. Whereat the 
umpire began to proceed, and calling the 
angel Gabriel, said ; " Go tell the daughter 
of Sion, Behold her King Cometh*^ !" Let 

g Ps. xiv. 3. h Matt.xxi. J. 


f o 


I these sisters now accord in one, and let that of 
[ the Prophet be confirmed, " Mercy and Truth 
' are met together. Righteousness and Peace 
i have kissed each other';" now. Truth, thou 
I shalt have thy right, for Adam shall die ; and 
' Mercy, here is thy desire, Adam shall de re- 
[ stored to life ; O happy harmony ! 
! But was there no righteous man that could 
make this atonement, or effect this great 
' work ? No, for the righteous shall only answer 
' for himself. Was there no Angel that could 
do it ? No, for they had not the same nature 
I with man. Could not the sacrifices of the 
• Law do it ? No, burnt offerings Thou wouldest 
I not have; it was Christ, and Christ alone, 
I that was both all and willing. Thus much of 
' Christ's compassion towards the state of man 
ii in general. 

IV. For His continual doing good in the 
world, we find this testimony given of Him ; 
" He hath done all things well'*." Look we 
into the Gospel, and there we shall also find 
that His pity was ever pardoning. His wisdom 

L I Ps. Ixxxv. lo. k Mark vii. 37. _ 

p- o 

o — — -c 


was ever teaching, His liberality was ever 
giving. His compassion was ever helping : and 
His teaching, whereunto did it tend, but to 
our instruction and consolation ? For His sin- 
cerity of life, while He walked in the world, 
Tertullianl bids the Romans but read their 
own registers ; there they should find mentioa 
of the faultless conversation of Jesus the Son 
of the Virgin Mary. " His continual doing 
good ;" now His doing good, was in effect 
our good, for look what was due to His 
obedience, to wit, love ; to His desert, to wit, 
reward ; to His humility, to wit, honour ; to 
His sorrow, to wit, joy ; to His death, to wit, 
life ; to H is victory, to wit, triumph ; all is 
attributed unto us. His merits became our 
merits. His suffering, our satisfaction : He fed 
many in the wilderness with material bread, 
and He imparted the bread of life unto whole 
multitudes that came to hear Him. 

For curing the diseased. He was the Physi- 
cian both of body and soul ; for relieving those 
that were miserable. He was a privileged place, 

1 TertuU. in Apologet, 


) _ o 


i whereunto all might repair, as infants unto 
: their mother's lap, where the dugs of mercy 
( are never dry. Steadfast was He in love 

without change, sufficient without want, free 

without desert, and evermore ready to do 

good unto all. 
I V. " This is a true saying," saith the 
I Apostle, " that Christ came into the world to 
; save sinners ;" Was this benefit restrained 
j unto some before others ? " No," saith 

St. John, " it was for all sinners ; He is the 
i reconcihation for our sins, and not only for our 
j sins, but for the sins of the whole world"™." 
\ The further any good reacheth, the more 
I noble it is ; the commission of the Apostles 
I was, "Preach glad tidings « ;" as it could 

not be but acceptable, so was it at large also ; 

" Preach it to all creatures, according to that 

of the Psalm ; " Their sound went out into all 

lands °." 
r He would " often have gathered Jerusalem, 

aa the hen doth her chickens under her 

wings P," if she would have hearkened unto 

tn I John ii. 2. n Mark xvi, ij. o Ps. x\x. 4. p Matt, xxiil.37. 



o c 


Him. " The sun," saith St. Chrysostom, 
"extendeth his beams universally to all. If 
any wilfully shut their eyes, and will not be- 
hold the light of the sun, is the fault in the 
sun } No, verily. Of this mystery, dispute 
he that willi." 

VI. To go on with the life of our Saviour, 
" He went about," saith St. Peter, " doing 
good, and healing all that were oppressed of 
the devil, for God was with Him'." Yea, 
His goodness shewed itself towards His very 
enemies, for while they were seeking to slay 
Him, He sought to save them ; He never 
regarded His own, but the common welfare 
and benefit of others. The candle being 
enlightened, with what carefulness did He 
seek the lost groat ? What mountains and 
deserts did He wander to find, and finding, to 
bring home man the stray sheep, leaving the 
ninety and nine or companies of Angels in 
glory 8 } 

VII. By all this we learn, that we live not 
in the world for ourselves, but setting Christ's 

I q S. Chrysost. in Johan. hom. i. r Acts x. 38. s Luke xv. 4. 

o — ( 

f -o 



I example before our eyes, how we ought to be 
[helpful to others. Of all living creatures, 

• there is none created to a more loving and 
I sociable end than man : but amongst men, 

none are more ordained to do good each to 
I other than Christian men. " While we are in 
( the way," saith St. Austin, " let us bear one 
I another's burden, that we may rest together at 

the end of the way ; we are branches, not 
i brambles to be rending and tearing one an- 

* other." In artificial buildings, one stone doth 
' bear up another ; much more should the same 
! be done in that building, " wherein," saith 
\ St. Peter, " all the faithful are as lively 
I stones t," Nature hath taught the beavers 
( to help one another in swimming, and the 
t cranes flying over the mountain Taurus, when 
[ the foremost is weary in beating the air, that 
I the next should succeed, and so in order, every 
\ one to labour for the safety of them all. 
I Grace doth teach us the same lesson, or rather 

the Author of grace ; live coals will kindle 
the dead; the holy " gift of God's Spirit," 

t I Pet. ii. i. 



o o 


St. Paul tells us, " we receive it to profit 
withal^." We receive it as for our own, so 
also for the good of others that have interest 
in our graces and gifts, not by way of title, 
but of participation. " And nothing is good 
unto us," saith St. Austin, " unless we com- 
municate the same good to others." 

VIII. We shew Whom we resemble, when 
we have compassion on some, and others save 
with fear, pulling them out of the fire^. We 
know not how soon we may stand in need of 
Grod ourselves, and therefore should desire 
nothing more than to shew ourselves helpful 
unto others. It is a token we are living mem- 
bers, when we feel the infirmity of sore parts 
in the body. Christ our Saviour doth not 
say to His Disciples, Be ye glorious or mighty, 
as your heavenly Father is glorious and 
mighty, but " Be merciful, as your heavenly 
Father is merciful," It was the voice of Cain ; 
" Am I my brother's keeper*^?" It was the 
answer of those that conspired the death of 
the Son of God, " What is it to us ? Look 

u I Cor. xii. 7. v Jude 23. w Gen. iv. 9. 


lo o 


thou to it^;" as if they cared for no more 
but themselves. It is the practice of world- 
lings only to respect themselves, and make no 
conscience, like greedy harpies, how they spoil 
others. In Pharaoh's dream, the le an de- 
voured the faty, but in the course of these 
men, the fat devour the lean, like fishes in the 
sea, where the greater do eat up the less ; we 
are often, God be merciful unto us, enemies 
one to another, like the Midianites. "It is a 
hard winter," say they, " when one wolf de- 
vours another," yet this is usual with men. 
"For these," saith Origen, " that punishment. 
Thou didst send forth Thy wrath, and the 
earth devoured them^," is verified in them ; 
Hath not the earth devoured them, which 
waking, do talk of earth ; sleeping, dream of 
earth ? The poor man wanteth many things, 
but yet greedy raking rich men lack more; 
the earth hath devoured them. Satan came 
from compassing the earth; and these are 
compassing of earthly things, but never think 
of compassing heaven. 

X Matt, xxvii. 4. y Gen. xli. 4. i Origen in illud Ps. 

p- o 

o— c 


IX. David saw a poor woman but look with 
a sorrowful countenance, and she needed not 
wait long for a day of hearing ; himself 
Cometh and demands the cause of her sonow, 
saying: "Woman, what aileth thee''?" One 
man resembleth another sometimes in speech, 
sometimes in gait and gesture, but he is most 
like a man that is like him in face. We may 
have sundry resemblances of Christ our Re- 
deemer, but of all other he is most like Him 
that is like Him in mercv. 


What we learn by Christ's little esteeming popularity 
and glory of the world. 

Let us now call to mind a httle, for our 
Christian instruction, how far Christ was from 
seeking the glory of this world, " to Whose 
greater glory it was," saith Origen, " that He 
appeared without glory ; to whose strength it 

a 2 Sam. xiv. J. 

o c 

p o 


j was that He came in weakness ^" When the 
[ people would have given Him the title and 
dignity of a king, He got away into a solitary 
I place'', nothing at all regarding that weather- 
cock blast of popular applause. " In the 
primitive Church," saith one, " there were so 
1 many despisers of the world, because those 
Christians so much looked upon the example 
of the Son of God, Who lived in a con- 
i tinual farewell of the world." He fled from 
i a kingdom amongst men, for His kingdom 
[ was not, as Himself told Pilate, of this 
I world <■." 

I n. And here we may in the first place 
I observe, that even in this His flying from 
glory, glory followed Him ; He was circum- 
cised as a sinnerd, yet named a Saviour of 
\ men ; lying in a manger at Bethlehem a 
I tender babe. He was adored of grave sages e ; 
dying as a man, yet is He worshipped and 
beheved on as Gcd. After many of His 
|i miracles. He specially charged the people to 

a Origen lib. i. coht. Gels. b John vi. 15. 
c Johnxviii.36. dLukeii. at. n 

p- o 

o c 


conceal them, and yet they pubhsh His fame, 
a thing He forbad them to do^ 

HI. " O holy Son of God," saith one, 
when the candle is hghtened, "Why wilt Thou 
have it put under a bushel ? Why wilt Thou 
not shew Thy glory unto men ? Was it be- 
cause Thy kingdom was not of this world ? 
True Lord, and therefore I rejoice to see Thee 
in humility," " Until the age of thirty years, 
we find," saith St. Bernard, " excepting only 
His disputing with the Doctors in the Temple, 
no other, but that our Saviour led a silent and 
a solitary lifeS;" What, did He fear vain 
glory. Who was the Lord of glory ? He 
feared indeed, but was it in regard of Him- 
self ? No, but for us, who were to be feared ; 
and therefore thereby would draw us by His 
precept and practice from ambitious desires 
of glory. 

IV. Although it was but seldom that our 
Saviour used reprehensions, yet we find that 
there were none whom He did more often 
reprove and openly rebuke, than a kind of 

f Matt. ix. 30. g S. Bernard, in Ser. diver. 

6 c 

_ — o 


men called Pharisees; having their name of 

separating themselves from other men, as 

being better than they, in their own conceits. 

These were those whom He resembled to 

" painted sepulchres, fair without, but foul 

within;" whose vizard was better than the 

face; all their holiness was no other than a 

show of holiness ; their comer counterfeit 

praying, to be seen of men ; their trumpet- 

blowng alms, to have a httle worldly pomp 

and glory. Our Saviour could not away with 

this fashion, and commanded us the contrary'^, 

V. It is a wonder to consider how we make 

; worldly glory our chiefest jewel, how all the 

sheaves of the field do fall down before a 

I conceit of preeminency. What was all that 

. was shewed, when all the glory of the world 

I was shewed ? the word is Solai, which signi- 

fieth no other but a shadow, an opinion, a 

I show, that which was shewed in the twinkhng 

of an eye, shall perish in the twinkling of an 

eye. What is praise of men but a puff of 

i wind which sometimes bloweth one way, and 

h Matt, vi, 1-9, i Matt. iv. 8. 

ih_ o 



sometimes another ? Or as the echo, which 
makes a sound, but is indeed no substance ? 
What is our vain mirth, but a httle sunshine 
before a storm ? What is worldly and secure 
peace, but a calm before a tempest ? 

If in any thing a Christian man shew him- 
self what he is, then surely most especially in 
being crucified to the flesh and the world ; 
that is to say, unto the pleasures of the one, 
the glory of the other. Three were crucified 
upon the cross together, two malefactors, and 
Christ in the midst ; and three there are to be 
crucified in Christ's members, the flesh, and 
the world, as the two thieves ; the Spirit, as 
Christ in the midst. The flesh is the thief 
upon the right hand ; " They that are Christ's, 
have crucified the flesh "^ ;" The world is the 
thief upon the left hand, according to that; 
" The world is crucified unto me, and I unto 
the world 1 ;" which is then done, when no- 
thing delights us, nor we take delight in any 
thing but in God. In the midst of these is 
the Spirit also crucified, according to that; 

k Gal. V. 34. 1 Gal. vi. 14. 

o_ -C 

) o 


•• A troubled spirit is a sacrifice to God™." 
[ The thief on the left hand was not saved ; 
1 the state of the world from whence Christ 
I hath taken His, " that they be not con- 
demned with the world"." The thief on 
j the right hand is saved, so is the crucified 
t flesh with the Spirit, when both are remem- 
I bered of Christ in His kingdom, and are with 
> Him in Paradise, because they are crucified 
I with Him. 

" What is it," saith St. Austin, " to be 
lifted up in this world, and in another world 
to be cast down ? What, for a short time to 
shine in glory, and hereafter to consume in 
misery 0?" 

" What was the cause," saith St. Chrysos- 
tomP, " that the house spoken of in the Gos- 
pel fell ? Was it in the wind, or the tempest, 
or the waters ? No. The text saith, " it was 
bailded upon the sand;" the foundation was 
not good. To build upon hope of riches or 
glory, is a weak foundation, the house may 

m Ps. li. 17. n Cxi. 32. 

i o S. Aug. Ep. 111. p S. Chrysost. horn. 4. ad pop. Antioch 


o c 


seem goodly in fair weather, but when a storm 
comes, it is gone. To let riches and glory go, 
and to build upon the rock, " trust in God 
only," this is that building which will never 
fail, come wind, come storm, come waters, and 

Fie upon that folly that delights more to 
seem unto men, than to be in truth and verity 
unto God. Doth not that wife displease her 
husband, who adorns herself to please others ? 
the same do they who by these actions only 
seek to please men. A strange practice there 
is in the world, that goeth about to alter by 
laying on a little I know not what, that 
countenance which God hath given, only to 
seem so and so, to the eyes of men. Christ 
said of the tribute money, " ^NHiose image i^ 
this ?" The same may be said concerning 
some in this case, Whose visage or coun- 
tenance is this ? 

The workman is wont to grow out of love 
with his work, seeing it deformed by others. 
How can we pray, or look up to God, when 
we are not of that form He hath given us ; or 

o ^c 

i— ■ -o 


jhow can we lift np our eyes to Heaven, but 
i think impiety shall not enter there ? These 
Ithink to deceive others, whereas indeed they 
fdeceive themselves, and I pray God they do 
(not one day find it, and weep with Esau for a 
j blessing, when it is too late. 

Painters desire to make somewhat only 
for show, they respect not any thing within. 
But what is it to have a foul guest in a fair 
fhouse, or a little praise and glory with men, 
.and to lose praise and acceptation with God? 
iSt. Ambrose saith of Joseph, " he was fair 
in body, but fairer in mind, which is best 
of allP." 

I IX. To glory in honour and praise of men, to 
[glory in building, in banqueting, is frivolous. To 
i account none worthy of honour but ourselves, 
jto seek for ostentation's sake to excel others, 
[is mere vanity. " Thy words," saith Phocion 
to a boasting companion, " are like a cypress 
ttree, tall enough, but without fruit." 

The Philosophers come unto Alexander's 
I tomb, and every one gives his verdict; some 

I p S. Joseph. 

* O 

o ( 


say, yesterday a world would not suffice, to- 
day seven feet in length ; others say, yester- 
day he had friends and enemies, to-day all are 
equal. " Go to the sepulchres," saith St. Austin, 
" and there shew me a difference, if you can, 
amongst the hones, between the rich and 
poor, between the master and the servant, 
between the greatest senator and lowest 
j subject ?" " Lo ! this is he," saith the 
! Prophet, " that put his trust in his riches r ;" 
I as if he would infer, you see what comes of 
I putting trust in earthly things. 

It is inferred of Herod that he gloried of an 
applause given to himself, " but gave not the 
I glory to Gods." What became of this? the 
Holy Scripture telleth us, " he was eaten up ■ 
with worms ;" and Josephus also accordeth '< 
with the Holy Scripture, that his end was 
1 miserable ; " but first," saith he, " there ap- 
peared an owl sitting upon his head, and after 
he was taken with the before-named torments ; 
he was a little before called a god, now it 

r Ps. Hi. 7. s Acts xii. 13. 

6 — 

I o 


i appears he is a miserable man. What were 
all his physician's become* ?" 
i X. Christ told them that sought superiority 
above others, they knew not what they ^ught. 
It is true in the condition of the world, for 
suppose worldlings have their desires, what 
have they but shining miseries ? The people 
pould not in any thing more displease the 
(Apostles, than when they would run in and 
were ready to sacrifice unto them. " The just 
man," saith Gregory, " when he is praised, is 
then humbled, fearing he is not unto God, as 
Ihe is esteemed of with men;" when he hath 
jdone any thing amiss, he accuseth himself; if 
iany thing well, he giveth all the praise only 
unto God, according to that of the Prophet ; 
i" Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto 
[Thy name give the praise"." The Prophet 
^teacheth us to speak twice against our own 
I praise, we are so ready to praise ourselves. 
I " Yea, in our best actions," saith St. Ambrose, 
I " take heed of that same thief Glory, which 
would steal away from us all acceptation with 

. t Joseph, lib. 19, de Ant. Jud. n Ps.cxv. i. 

^ ^ o 

o c 


God." " If I have thought gold my strength^." 
saith Job ; " If I have hfted up my hand 
against the fatherless^ ; If I have said to my 
treasure, my trust ; If I have exalted myself in 
riches ;" by which kind of speech the holy 
man in eifect saith, I have not done any of 
these things ; I have not had any of these 
thoughts, they are far from me. 

XL Plutarch writeth, that it was the 
manner of vain-glorious men to have a kind 
of jester to sing their praises in great assem- 
blies ; but how far godly men have been from 
this foolishness, all that are conversant in 
histories know, they could not abide such 
jarring interludes. Moses would not be 
counted " the son of Pharaoh's daughter^." 
St. Paul would not count himself " worthy the 
name of an Apostle"." The rich man glorieth 
in his riches, but St. Paul " in his infirmities y." 
The proud man in his glory, he " in a good 
conscience ^" The voluptuous man in excess, 
he "in content^." All the instruments, with 

vJobxxxi. 24. xJobxxxi i.wHeb.xi. 24. x i Cor. XV. 9. 
y 2 Cor. xii J. z Acts xxiii. i. a Phil iv. 11. 




their noise, could not make the three children 
fall down before the idol^, nor all the popu- 
larity in the world make good men affect vain- 
glory, they know both what it is, and how 
soon it vanisheth. 

Those who from some high turret or tower, 

I behold things far beneath under them, think 

i them small and httle, but these beneath think 

tthem great. In like manner, those whose 

[minds are elevated to heavenly things, and 

i have their affections on high, worldly things 

[ seem to these little, and little worth ; they 

! cannot but wonder why men beneath, or 

earthly minded, should so much desire them 

as they do, being so transitory and variable 

as they are. 

XII. Where is Pharaoh, that gloried so 

I much in chariots ? doth not his overthrow tell 

( boasting champions that an host is nothing, 

without the God of hosts ? "Where are the 

giants " that would build so high," and glory 

in a name ? doth not God's Word tell us. 

b Dan. iii. 18. 


C' o 


" they were scattered'," and defeated of their 

Is glory then so fleeting? Then may 
worldUngs say, farewell vain world, for as 
much as there is no trust in thee ; thou failest 
them whom thou most favourest ; they soonest 
fall, when they think themselves most sure. 
Farewell world, thou that quarrellest, but dost 
not pacify ; in thee there is no joy without 
trouble, no peace without discord, no love 
without suspicion, no rest without fear, no 
abundance without blemish, no honour without 
discontent, no estate without carefulness of 

Farewell glory of the world, for in thy 
dehghts promises are made and never kept, in 
thy vineyard men labour, but are never re- 
warded. Farewell world, which callest the 
rash, valiant ; the proud, seemly ; the covet- 
ous, good husbands ; the babbler, eloquent ; 
the wanton, youthful. Farewell world, which 
deceivest all that trust in thee, which dost 
promise to the ambitious, honours ; to the 

c Gen. xi, 4. 




greedy, rewards ; to the covetous, riches ; to 
the young, time. Farewell I say, vain-glory, 
which because thou art not of God, failest all. 
XIII. When Gyges, a great worldling, 
would fain know if any man were more happy 
than himself, thinking him most happy which 
had most riches and glory, it was answered 
him, that one Psophidius, a poor old man of 
the Arcadians, who was rich with a little, and 
had never gone all his hfe time from the place 
where he was bred and born, but there lived 
peaceably, that this man was far happier than 
he. If heathen men could so little esteem of 
earthly glory, what should Christians do ? 
Whom should they think most happy, but 
those who most mind the state of happiness 
to come ? 

O Christian, after the example of Christ 
thy Redeemer, trouble not thyself if thou see 
others advanced, care not for earthly glory, 
i but care to attain heavenly ! 

D _ __o 


What we learn by Chirst's continual labour and 
travails in the world. 

The sick man that is about to take some 
bitter medicine, when he sees but the phy- 
sician himself begin, it makes him the more 
willing to receive the potion, how bitter or 
distasteful soever. The labours and travails 
of this transitory life, have no doubt, a very 
unpleasant taste to human palates, but seeing 
Christ the physician of our souls, not only 
took an assay thereof, but even drunk a full 
draught for our redemption, we should be 
the more willing to admit the receiving some 
little quantity of the same potion. 

When we consider our Lord and Master, 
His long watchings, and how He passed whole 



D o 


nights in prayer; His often journeying from 

place to place to instruct and teach in every 

city ; His fasting ; His suffering all along from 

His very infancy ; from His flying into Egypt, 

unto His consummatum est; what shall we 

else behold in Him, but a life full of labours, 

travels never ended, but with loss of life ! 

I Was it not thy birth, O Christian soul, which 

I was then to be brought forth, when our Rachel 

• travailed unto deaths? Was it not thy cause, 

' O Holy Church, for which our Jacob endured 

so many years servitude*^ ? He Who with one 

' drop of blood could have redeemed a world, 

would notwithstanding suffer so many labours, 

80 many travails, that no labours whatsoever 

! might dismay us. 

, n. At five several times did Christ our 
i Saviour so far proceed in labours, as there 
I, ensued the efiusion of His blood ; first, in His 
Circumcision, there He began to redeem us ; 
secondly, in His prayer in the garden, there 
I He shewed how He affected us ; thirdly, when 
' He was scourged, there He cured us by His 

\ c Gen. XXXV. i8. d Gen. xxix. 20. 

b o 

o — o 


Stripes; fourthly, when He was fastened to 
the cross, there He paid the price and ransom 
for our sins ; fifthly, when His side was open- 
ed with the spear, there was an issue made for 
the streams and rivers of grace: all these 
were done for our redemption, and remam 
upon record for our instruction. By the first 
we learn to labour in cutting off the unlawful 
desires of sin ; by the second, to mourn with 
sighs and groans for our sins ; by the third, 
to mortify the pleasures of the flesh ; by the 
fourth, to be crucified unto the world ; by the 
fifth, to have our hearts wounded with a daily 
remembrance of His unspeakable love. 

HI. The holy man Job suffered great trials 
and troubles, we think, as great may be, 
but for all that, Christ's were greater; for 
look we into His whole hfe, see we therein 
every age, go we to every place where He was 
conversant, nay, take we a view of His sacred 
Person, and therein see we every part suffering. 
Every age ; in His infancy, how cold and hard 
was His cradle at Bethlehem ! How busy was 
I He with the Doctors in the Temple ! To come 



) — o 


to further years, what hatred did He endure 
j most undeservedly of the Jews, even hatred 
unto death ! Eveiy place ; He suflfered hunger 
in the desert, resistance in the Temple, sorrow 
in the garden, contumelies in the judgment 
hall, and crucifying itseK, without the city. 
Every part ; His eyes suffered tears. His ears 
! reproaches, His taste suffered gall. His head 
, pricking of thorns, His hands the piercing of 
nails, His whole body is sacrificed as an 
oflfering for sin. Now there is no reason that 
I the servant shoidd be above the Master d. 
I When Jonathan's armour-bearer saw his mas- 
ter go up the hard and steepy rocks, he told 
: him he would go with hime. "When we see 
our Jonathan go before us in travails and 
labours suffered for us, should we not be em- 
i boldened to endure labours, though no way 
i answerable unto His, yet such as are agreeable 
with the condition of our life, seeing we are 
going into the land of promise, by the desert 
[ of this world ? 

IV. Strange it was, that " David, a man 

d Matt, X. 23. e i Sam. xiv. J. 


o o 


after God's own heart," as the Scripture 
speaketh, should be so much afflicted as he 
was^. Strange it was, that Daniel, " a man 
beloved of God," as the Angel told him, 
should be cast into the lions' den&. Strange 
it was, I say, that these of all other should be 
so much in labours and travails of the world 
as they were. But considering that the life of 
man is but as the days which go before the 
sabbath of rest, we may the less marvel. 

We see the Son of God Himself treading 
the wine-press alone, and a man full of 
labours^i, as the Prophet speaketh. We see 
His dearest friends in the world, His ovra 
Apostles, yea the blessed Virgin herself found 
this life no other but a state subject to many 
and great sorrows. " What should we other- 
wise think of it," saith one ? but this, " All the 
life of a Christian man, according unto the Gos- 
pel, is no other but a cross and martyrdom." 

'' This martyrdom," saith Isidore, " is two- 

old ; the one, in open suffering ; the other, 

f Ps. cxlii. 2. g Dan. vi. 23. h Isaiah liii. 3. 

o o 

D — — — — o 


in inward or hidden virtue i;" that ig, in a 
mind always ready to suffer. 

"[But how is it," saith St. Austin, " that 

Christ calls those that labour, to refresh them ? 

How is His yoke sweet, when He calls from 

rest to labour, and sends those that are at 

quiet to work in His vineyard ?" " The rest 

that He gives," saith the same Father, " is 

; spiritual ; John is banished into Patmos, but 

I John hears melody from Heaven." 

! V. Besides these spiritual labours, we know 

I Adam in the time of his innocency laboured ; 

; and that God hath made nothing to be idle ; 

j that He will have no ciphers in His arith- 

1 metic, or slothful servants in His vineyard. 

j Every thing in nature doth accomplish its 

; end by a kind of motion ; and therefore much 

1 more man of all other, who by slothfulness 

j doth become a very burden of the earth. For 

I in this vice of idleness, wit, understanding, 

and all honest endeavours, lie buried as it 

were, in a loathsome sepulchre, from whence 

ariseth the unsavoury smell of corrupt man- 

} Isid. Eli. lib. •^. ca. 

;)— O 

o ■ c 


; ners. In that Christ our Saviour called Peter 
! and Andrew while they were fishing, James 
' and John while they were mending their nets, 
\ we may gather how He liked of labour, and 
i thought them fit for a laborious profession. 
"Man is said to be bom to labour^," and 
therefore not to rest while he is here. " Man 
I goeth forth unto his labour until the evening," 
i saith David. 

\ Scipio banished all the idle soldiers and un- 
profitable people from his camp. He found it 
I true by experience in the course and continu- | 
I ance of the wars, which the Romans had with | 
; them of Carthage, that whilst they had i 
i enemies in Africa, they knew not what vices 
meant in Rome. The Christian man's life, as 
it should of all others be far from vice, so 
' withal should it be far from this slothfulness,- 
which is the cause of vice. It was the 
' Apostle's rule, " If any would not labour,! 
' he should not eatU" 

j VI. Now between these two, to wit, the. 
labours of fhe mind and body, we see that we 

k Job V. 7. 1 2 Thcss. iii. 10. 

o — 

) o 


must frame ourselves for the time of our con- 
I tinuance here, to be with St. Paul " in labours 
often." We have set our hand to the plough, 
and in the first place let us take care, of all 
other things, that God's husbandry go forward 
well with us, howsoever the world go. This 
is the difiference between the labours of the 
righteous, and theirs who weary themselves in 
the way of vanity. When the Prophet speaks 
of trouble which the godly shall have, he 
speaks of deliverance, " the Lord delivereth 
them," saith he, " out of all"^" but of the 
other he speaks after this manner, " Great 
miseries remain for the ungodly," and there is 
no mention at all made of their deliverance. 
When he speaks of sensual men, he saith : 
Non sunt in laboribus, what was the sequel ? 
Ideo superbia tenuit eos. " They are not 
in the labours of other menn," saith one, " but 
shall they not be, except they repent, one 
day in worse labours ?" 

VII. Wherefore, when the labours and 
sorrows of this transitory life grieve us, we 

m Ps. xxxiv. 19. n Ps. Ixxiii. <. 

p. : 6 



may think of deliverance, and of our arrival at 
that place where no labours and sorrows are. 
" The husbandman," saith St. James, " waits 
for the fruits of the earth," and should not we 
wait for the fruits of Heaven ? we see mer- 
chants for gain, soldiers for triumph, do put 
themselves into many dangers, and yet neither 
doth the merchant always compass his gain, 
nor the soldier always triumph ; but in case 
they do, yet are they not long to enjoy either. 
If the earthly soldier do this, what should the 
heavenly soldier do ? It falleth out otherwise ' 
in our heavenly labours, the gain is certain, ; 
the triumph everlasting. " Every work," | 
saith St. Jerome, " is made light, when the ] 
reward of the same work is thought upon." 

But here is a reward so great that it cannot 
be measured; so precious that it cannot be 
valued; so permanent that no time can di- 
minish it. Let us call to mind how sweet 
freedom is after a time of bondage. It is said 
of the faithful, that they shall sit with Abra- 
ham, and sitting presupposeth rest. 

The state of happiness to come, is called in 

o -o 

t) o 


tiie Revelation, " the supper of the Lambo," 
The supper, and so the last refection ; after 
the labours of the day, then labourers take 
their rest. Travellers having but sorry usage 
at the first bait in their journey, are wont to 
say. Well the best is, we shall sup at another 
place. So when we perceive we have but 
sorry usage here, we may say, we shall come 
one day where the entertainment will be 
better. God knows what is fittest for pas- 
sengers ; labour in the way, rest at the end of 
the way. It was the sentence of Almighty 
God, the woman should have labour in the 
fruit of the womb, the man labour in the fruit 
of the earth. 

VIII. Though Joseph spake a little sharply 
to his brethren P, and made them for a time to 
travel to and fro, yet he loved them never the 
worse. But these travails and sorrows, will 
some say, are surely hurtful unto men. King 
Cyrus was not of that opinion, when for a 
punishment to the people of Sardis, he com- 

o Rev. xix. g. p Gen. xlii. y. 

p- o 

o c 


manded them to spend their time in gaming 
and f eastings. 

IX. To draw to a conclusion ; having given 
our names unto Christ, it remaineth that 
we look for labour ; to them assigneth He the 
cro\NTi, who fight the battle. When we suffer 
and endure travails in the world for righteous- 
ness' sake, it sheweth that we oxfi under 
Christ's standard; our watchword is, "Be 
constant unto the end." It makes men suffer 
the more patiently, when they see others suffer 
before them ; but most of all, Christians, who 
behold Christ suffering before them, and for 
them. Is it meet that Thy servant should live 
in pleasure, when Thou art full of toil and 
travail ? Is it fit that he should lie at ease, and 
Thou sweat in labours ? What reason is it 
then, O man, that seeing the Lord Jesus, who 
is so far above all earthly monarchs as the 
greatest lord is above his meanest servant ; is 
it meet that He who is not only thy Master 
but thy Maker should pass His time in con- 
tinual travail and thou in continud ease? 
Heathen men were wont to say, that the ants 

6 -c 

)— o 


1 who live and travail and make provision to- 
' gether, " and have no law," as St. Ambrose 
speaketh, " to command them, do shew men 
how to become fit members of a common- 
wealth." But the care indeed of holy men, 
who were ever watchful, provident, and indus- 
trious, doth teach us to become fit members in 
that Mystical Body, which is here only militant 
j in grace, but shall one day be triumphant in 

Let us call to mind what was said to the 
laborious servant, " O thou good servant, thou 
hast been faithful over little, I will make thee 
ruler over much ; enter thou into the joy of 
thy Lord^i." 



What we learn by Christ's teaching the multitude, and 
His actions before He taught. 

When the Apostle St. Paul exhorteth the 
Corinthians "to be followers of him, as he 
was of Christa," we must think St. Paul 

q Matt. XXV. 21. aiCor.xl. i. 


o c 


had a care to follow Christ, which care he 
would also have the Corinthians, and con- 
sequently all Christians to have. In the be- 
holding of this pattern of the life of Christ, 
let us observe it well, and we shall find that 
His doing and saying did accord in one. 
Begin we with His first sermon upon the 
mount, we shall find therein contained what- 
soever doth appertain to the perfection of a 
Christian life. There see the poverty which 
at one stroke doth cut down by the root all 
the solicitous desires of earthly things ; there 
see that meekness, that doth utterly exclude all 
hatred and contention amongst men ; there 
see those tears that do rebaptize the sorrow- 
ful and repentant soul ; there see that hunger 
and thirst which doth bring everlasting satiety ; 
there see that mercy that is ever helpful to the 
necessity of the distressed, and shall receive 
mercy from God ; there see that peace, that 
causeth all concord and unity amongst the 
faithful members of Christ Jesus ; last of all, 
there see that patience that lifteth man above 
the stars of heaven, to whom the misty 

O ( 

p- o 


i clouds of this inferior region, and storms here 

[ beneath are as it were under his feet. In all 

; these Christ our Saviour speaketh comfortably, 

i proposing in every one blessedness. 

I II. For His form of teaching ; it vi^as " as 

t one that had power and authority^" to pierce 

the very heart, as may appear by those words ; 

" But I say unto you^." He spake as one 

that had power to command and enjoin a duty 

to the heart. Who could look into the heart 

of man but the Maker of man ? Or who could 

enjoin a law to men's thoughts but He which 

knew their thoughts, and will one day judge 

them ? The Jews supposed that only a false 

oath was unlawful, Christ will not have them 

swear at all ; " let your communication be, 

Yea, yea. Nay, nayil;" whereupon St. Basil 

saith, " yea in speech, and yea in heart ; nay 

in speech, and nay in heart." Being asked of 

the Pharisees whether " it were lawful for a 

man to put away his wife for every caused," 

they could soon have answered Him them- 

b Matt. vii. 29. c Matt. v. 28. 

d Matt. V. 37. e Matt. xix. 7. 

O o 

o o 


selves out of Moses' law, concerning the 
giving a bill of divorce ; but our Saviour 
sheweth the original, that this " w^as permitted 
only by reason of the hardness of their 
hearts," and therefore openeth the vrhole 
matter unto His Disciples, and setteth down as 
it were a full determination of this doubt, 
" that he who putteth away his wife, except 
it be for fornication, and marrieth another, 
committeth adultery ;" and St. Paul taketh it so 
to be without further scruple ; " the woman is 
bound unto the man so long as the man 
liveth." By the law of conveting, the Jews 
understood the outward signs ; " Thou shalt 
not covet, that is, thou shalt not do the signs 
of him that coveteth." Christ tells them 
there was more required in this law than so ; 
for why ? not only the outward, but also the 
inward man must concur in the observation of 
the same, and therefore the very intention of 
the mind was to answer the default in God's 
consistory. The Pharisees, they would not 
kill, but they made no scruple to hate their 
brother, even from their hearts ; they would 

o o 

— o 


not commit adultery, but they made no con- 
science, which Christians ought to do, of evil 
thoughts. Again, our Saviour's preaching 
was with power ; from whence came this 
power ? first, from a profound habit of hea- 
venly wisdom ; next, from the most sincere 
manner of His life, to shew unto us that good 
learning and godly living ought for to go 

III. To wade deeper into His doctrine, 
which was all along lively, grave, and full 
of majesty, the Evangelists themselves do 
sufficiently declare and manifest as much, 
according to that reply of the messengers sent 
from the High-Priests, " Never man spake as 
this man speaks f;" or that of St. Peter, 
" Lord, Thou hast the words of eternal lifeS." 

For the subject of His first doctrine, it was 
" Repent, and beheve the Gospell^." John 
the Baptist, who also prepared the way, he 
preacheth repentance as if repentance were 
the way to come to Christ. Repentance 
makes us find the disease, and finding the 

f John vli. 46. g John vi. 68. h Mark i. ij. 

) _ ^o 



disease, we run unto the physician. Repentance 
makes us feel the burden, and when we feel 
the burden, we fly unto Him that can ease us. 
Repentance makes us accuse ourselves, " and if 
we accuse ourselves here," saith St. Austin, 
" Satan shall have nothing to accuse us of 
hereafter." John preached health, Christ 
brought health. John was a light, and a light 
is necessary before day. John was a voice, and 
the voice goeth before the Word, the voice 
vanisheth, the Word abideth for ever. 

IV. As John taught repentance, so Christ 
also taught the same, to shew that this is a most 
necessary doctrine for the state of man, who 
by repentance should ofttimes commune with 
himself, debating God's cause against himself, 
and his own cause with the mercy of God. 
" A kind of death it is," saith St. Austin, " to 
live without repentance." Ahab thought Elijah 
and his prophesyings did but trouble him', as 
many think of the doctrine of repentance ; but 
he found, and they shall find, it will be their 

\ I Kings xviii. 17. 

O —O 

'— o 


own sins that at the last shall trouble them, 
unless they repent. 

V. But to go forward, as His doctrine in 
this His calling of sinners to repentance, was 
most peaceable, so it was also easy, plain, and 
perspicuous, even when He treated of the pro- 
foundest mysteries, wherein he used neither 
pomp nor pride of affected eloquence, yet was 
it ponderous, without either fear, flattery, or 
by discourses mixed with gall and bitterness. 
This plain and perspicuous manner of speech 
bare with it a majesty, declaring from Whom it 
came, manifested in that, " Do this, and thou 
shalt live." 

He disannulled not the Law of Moses, but 
rather ratified the same ; that, speaking of the 
Circumcision of the flesh, which was the sign ; 
He, of the Circumcision of the heart, which 
was the thing signified. In all which there 
was a powerful operation, as the Disciples rea- 
soned, " Did not our hearts burn while He 
opened the Scriptureslf?" 

In this His teaching, He used parables, " a 

k Luke xxiv, 33. 

D _ O 



form of instruction taken," saith St. Jerome, 
" from resembling one thing by another, which 
by a thing known, is wont to draw the hearers 
unto a more plain understanding of things un- 
known unto them, notwithstanding unto the 
perverse, more intricate and mystical," ac- 
cording to that of St. Matthew, " Unto you it is 
given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of 
Heaven, but unto others in parables^." 

VI. This one thing we may withal learn for 
our Christian observation, that Christ's actions 
were every way answerable unto His doctrine ; 
His words preached Holiness of life. His 
works preached the same ; "He began to do 
and teach," saith St. Luke™ ; a long way by 
precept, is by example oftentimes made short 
and easy. He fulfilled in His own person 
whatsoever He taught others to do, that in 
Him the world might have a light, both of 
good teaching and good following, 

VH. For the application hereof, we may 
observe by this His teaching, first, that He 
was the very Prophet whom God had promised 

1 Matt. xiii. ti. m Acts i. i. 

O C 

) o 


by Moses to raise, whom all should hear, and 
hearing follow "i. 

We often marvel at the Jews' hardness of 
heart, who, having Christ among them, coming 
as He ought to come, according to all the 
Prophets of old, their ears were so dull, they 
! would not hear Him, their eyes so blind they 
I would not see Him. In the next place, we 
' may consider that Jesus Christ is the same for 
i ever : many Christians would have been glad, 
I if it had pleased God, to have been present 
I with those eyewitnesses, in beholding their 
I Redeemer ; for what a joy would it have 
i oflfered the beholders of His venerable coun- 
[tenance. His graceful behaviour, to have heard 
i His most gracious words and manner of ex- 
hortation, which would have made a Christian 
I soul to dissolve itself, as it were, into tears of 


Vni. But hearing is not all, for when 
Christ said, " Blessed are they that hear"," 
He had not so soon done, but there was some- 
what more behind, which was an et custodiunt, 

n Ueut. xxviii. i, 2. o Luke xi. 28 

<i- ^ O 

o — o 


that is, a keeping of those instructions that 
they heard ; to shew that the scope of His 
teaching was not to have His auditors to hear 
only or admire, but to keep and follow ; not 
to discourse, but to practise ; for He shews 
that hearing, keeping, and blessing, they do go 
all together. 

In the Law, were those clean beasts that 
did chew the cud only ? No, they must chew 
the cud, and divide the hoofP. Christ saith of 
Mary that heard the word, " Mary hath 
chosen the good part;" hearing is but a 
part. When the Prophet speaks of the tes- 
timonies of God's Law, he addeth this ; *' In 
keeping of them there is great rewardq;" he 
doth not say, in only hearing. The promises 
of salvation in Holy Scriptures are not so 
much laid forth to the hearers, as to the doers 
of the will of God their heavenly Father. 
It was His own practice. Who was the natural 
Son of God ; it ought to be ours, who are the 
sons of God by grace, to do the will of our 
Father which is in Heaven. 

p Levit. xi.4, S. q Ps. xix. ii. 



D- O 


Thus, as He joined in one, doing and 
' teaching, so should we believing and follow- 
ing ; that so a right faith and a Christian life, 
I which are as it were coupled together, we 
[ should in no case sever ; " You know these 
things, happy are you if ye do them." What- 
soever we profess, we must not think to come 
to Heaven by doing nothing worthy of our 
\ Christian calling. " It is true," saith St. Ber- 
I nard, of good works, " they are not the cause 
of reigning, yet are they the way to the 
I kingdom r." Wherefore let us walk in this 
! way after the example of Him who hath said 
unto U9 all, " I am the Way." 


What we learn by Christ's example in visiting the sick, 

feeding the hungry, and curing all that 

came unto Him. 

Whether it were to behold our Saviour's 
miracles, as the people came^, or to be cured 
of their corporal maladies, as the multitude b, 

r S. Beniard. in Cant. ser. 33. 
a John vi. 2. bLukevi. 17. 1 

) (^ 

o c 


or of desire to commune with Him, as Nico- 
demus*^; or of an affection to see Him, of 
whom so great fame went abroad, as Zac- 
chseusd; whether for these causes, or any 
other, so it was, that a company of people 
altogether came flocking after our Saviour in 
great abundance. As when some skilful phy- 
sician repaireth to any populous city, the 
diseased of all other draw unto him ; so came 
they unto Christ, who was able not only to 
cure their sick bodies, but even to raise to life 
again their siftk, yea their dead souls to the 
life of grace ; shewing that He would not the 
death of a sinner, that came to die for sinners. 

n. Ancient and latter records make mention 
of an epistle sent by Lentulus the Proconsul 
unto the states and senate of Rome^, in which 
he tells them of one .Tesus, who appeared in 
Jewry going about doing good, and healing 
all of what infirmity soever they were taken. 

Julian the Apostate himself confessed thus 
much of Him ; " Indeed," saith he, " He 
cured certain blind men, and recovered some 

I cJohniii. 2. dLukexix.3. e Magdeb. cent. i. 

O — C 

D c 


few that were diseased in body." Yea, Julian, 

and that was enough to have made thee see 

Him to be the Son of God, hadst thou not 

been obstinately blind. For was it ever heard 

since the beginning of the world, that any 

gave sight unto men born blind"', except 

I Christ the Redeemer of the world ? The 

great power He shewed in healing only by 

\ His word'^, the diseases of the body, might 

have moved thee to believe on Him for the 

health and welfare of thy soul. See Him, 

I Julian, doing such works, and if for no other 

cause, yet believe Him for His works' sake. 

I The centurion had authority over his soldiers, 

I if he said to one, Go, he goeth, to another, 

[ Come, he comethY ; Christ's authority was as 

I absolute over all diseases ; if He said go, they 

I departed ; if come, they obeyed ; but chiefly 

I was he wont to command them to depart ; 

and not only diseases, but even His authority 

! was the same over the devils themselves, 

: whom He cast out, bringing many tormented 

creatures into their right minds again. 

w John ix. 32. X John xiv. it. y Matt. viii. 9. 


o o 


III. Well did our Saviour Christ compare 
Himself unto a physician, and so was He ; for 
there was no disease so desperate, but He 
could salve it. He wrought many cures, but 
when He cured the soul of man. He vrrought 
a cure indeed, for the effecting whereof He 
used divers kinds of medicines which He took 
Himself. The first, by diet, when He fasted 
forty days and forty nights z. The second, by 
electuary, when He gave His most precious 
Body and Blood in His last supper *. The 
third, by sweat, at His agony in the garden^. 
The fourth, by plaster, when His face was 
spitted on by the Jews c. The fifth, by potion, 
when He tasted vinegar mixed with gall^. 
The sixth, by letting of blood, when His hands 
and feet were pierced s; yea, when His heart- 
vein was stricken, His side gored with the 
spear. Here was a cure of all cures, which 
all the Galenists in the world may admire 
with reverence, and become His patients. Who 
was such a Physician of souls. 

z Matt. iv. a. a Matt. xxvi. 26. b Luke xxii. 44. 

c Mark xv. 19. d Johnxix. 29. e John xix. 34. 

o o 

o o 


A sti-ange kind of prescription it was He 
enjoined some of His patients ; " Behold, thou 
art made whole, sin no more lest a worse 
thing come unto thee^." This is the good diet 
for the time to come, which the cured must 
use, because the relapse is wont to prove 
dangerous unto death. 

IV. But to consider a little further Christ's 
taking pity and compassion upon the miser- 
able : when some earthly king will visit his 
subjects and people under him, they all by way 
of gratulation bring him presents, and offer 
the best gifts they can devise ; but when the 
King of Heaven came to visit His people, 
" they bring Him in beds," saith the Evan- 
gelists, " all that were diseased-;" those were 
all Christ's presents, and He took them in 
good part too, when they were presented unto 
Him. It is said of David, that all who were 
indebted, distressed, or of a sorrowful mind, 
came unto him ''. When we come unto Christ, 
we come unto Him, to Whom David himself 

f John V. 14. g Matt. ix. 2. Mark ii. 4. Luke v. 18, 19 
. , hi Sam, xxii. a. 


o c 


came when he was distressed. The blind man 
threw off his sorry cloak to run to Christ ». 
The centurion comes for his sick servant'*; 
it was a thing commendable to have a care of 
his servant in the time of his sickness. A 
man that was deaf and dumb is brought unto 
Him, Christ openeth his ears, looseth his 
tongue', shewing him the best use thereof, 
" Go, and give glory unto God." When the 
leper came unto Him, and said, " Lord, if Thou 
wilt. Thou canst make me clean"-;" Why, 
leper ! hadst thou come near any one of the 
Pharisees, there was no other to be looked for 
of him, but away, begone leper, thou mayest not 
approach towards the congregation, I will in 
no case touch thee ; leper, thou art unclean. 
What doth Christ ? He gently stretcheth out 
His hand, which was liberality against the 
covetous, which was humility against the 
proud, which was pity against the envious, 
and, last of all, power against the incre- 


i Mark x. Jo. k Luke vii. 6. 

1 Mark vii. Jj. m Mark i. 40. Matt. viii. 2. 

O- ■ o 


When the physician recovers the sick, who 
hath the benefit, the sick party, or the phy- 
sician? The centurion thought Christ's word 
was enough. Both how able and wilUng He 
was to do good, we may see, in that when 
the sick were not able to come unto Him, 
He went Himself to visit them, as He did 
to Peter's wife's mother ii, and the ruler's 
daughter o. 

V. Amongst other works of mercy. His 
delivering those who were possessed of devils P, 
was most admirable, and none knew the benefit 
thereof better than those who were partakers 
of this benefit. The evil spirits cry out, 
" Jesus, Thou Son of God, what have we to 
do with Thee ?" Sure, indeed ! they had no- 
thing to do with Christ, but Christ had to do 
with them, to wit, to cast them out from men 
into the swine. " Questionless," saith St. Au- 
stin, " unless men did live like swine, Satan 
could never enter into them." " There are in 
U8," saith Cassianusq, " many evil spirits, which 

n Matt. viii. 14. o Matt. ix. 25. 

p Mark v. 8. Luc. viii. 29. Matt. viii. 33. 
.,_ q Cass, de spirit. Irse. 

O 1 o 

o c 


we beseech Him daily to cast out, as the spirit 
of pride, the spirit of fornication, and such 
other." Christ cast seven devils out of 
Mary Magdalen ; and so many foul vices, as, 
first, pride ; second, covetousness ; third, lux- 
ury ; fourth, envy ; fifth, wrath ; sixth, incon- 
tinency ; seventh, sloth, doth His grace daily 
cast out from us, and still He is casting forth 
evil spirits. 

VI. Another testimony of His most loving 
aflFection towards the sons of men, was His 
often refreshing the hungry >"; for He would 
not send them away without refreshing, and 
specially in the wilderness a place otherwise 
far unfit to procure food for a multitude, and 
therefore He said, " I have compassions," 
This He spake when the people had now far 
to go, and therefore without relief might 
have fainted by the way. By all which, the 
nature of the Son of God is discovered unto 
us, how much He tendereth man's welfare, 
and specially, how ready He is to be helpful to 

r Mark viii. a. 8 Matt. xv. 32. 


o o 


all distressed persons, what infirmity soever 
they have either of body or soul. 

VII. Hence we learn, first of all to ac- 
knowledge His goodness ; secondarily, to have 
recourse unto Him in time of need ; and, 
thirdly, to be merciful unto others by His 
example who hath been merciful unto us. 
Nazianzen, in his oration De pauper, aman- 
dis, saith, " It may be truly said, how unlike 
to the Son of God are unmerciful men !" 

The Apostles of our Lord saw by His deed, 
and heard by His doctrine, how much He 
would have them respect the necessity of the 
miserableS; " Blessed are the merciful*," saith 
He; and if He say blessed, they are blessed 
indeed. It shall be said unto the alms-givers 
and to those naked clothers, " Come, receive 
the kingdom prepared for you"." The Holy 
Ghost compares our deeds of charity imto seed 
sown; " They that sow plentifully^/' that is, do 
give plentifully. Now we know that after sow- 
ing, in time comes harvest, and when the harvest 

8 Luke ri. 36. t Matt. v. 7. 

u Matt. XXV. 34. V Gal. vi. 7. 

O O 

o— c 


comes, there are many for one, and the hus- 
bandman's sowing is recompensed; keep our 
seed by us, it will corrupt ; cast it forth, we 
shall have increase. By this, there is a kind 
of giving which may be called gaining. 

The rich man in the Gospel cared for filling 
his barns, the Scripture calleth him fool"', he 
never cared for filling the best barns, to wit, 
the beUies of the poor. 

" We may not think," saitli St. Chrysostom, 
" that as God made rich men for the profit of 
the poor, so also God made the poor for the 
profit of the rich." " Make you friends," 
saith the Scripture, "of wicked Mammon"," 
as if rich men should one day find that the 
poor were their best friends, when they come 
to be received into everlasting habitations ; 
" for God," saith Gregory Nyssen, " seemeth 
for to make them porters of Heaven." Abra- 
ham and Lazai-us, rich and poor, both together 
by the grace of God, and heed taken in time, 
shall rejoice together in the kingdom of 

w Luke xii. 20. x Luke xvi. 9. 

o o 

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What more praiseworthy in a Christian 
man, than where God hath blessed, industry 
gathered, and frugaUty saved, there by chari- 
table deeds of mercy, to pity the distressed 
case of others, seeing Christ accounteth this 
as done unto Himself? " When I was hungry, 
you fed Me>';" if this may not move us to be 
charitable and shew mercy, good Lord, what 
may ? " Whence is it," saith Nazianzen^, in 
the place before mentioned, " that we live, that 
we know God, that we look for another world, 
and joys in the same ?" Who hath granted 
us to look up and behold the heavens, the 
circle of the moon, the multitude of the stars ? 
Who hath given us the course of times and 
seasons ; the spacious air. the showers, fruits, 
meats, mansions, laws; ordinances to contain 
us within the bonds of civil society? Who 
hath given us lands, hereditaments, cattle, 
goods, possessions ? but even He who would 
have us merciful unto others, as Himself hath 
been merciful unto us. And therefore to con- 
clude with the same Father, " O man, give 

y Matt. XXV. 35. i Naiianzen. de pauper, amandls. 


o — o 


somewhat unto man, nay, give something unto 
God;" then shall He say, "Whatsoever you 
did to these; you did it unto Me." " He hath 
dispersed," saith the Psalm, " and given unto 
the poor, his righteousness abideth for ever";" 
consider not so much what is dispersed, as see 
what abideth for ever. The sum is, we have 
heard what Christ did, here we learn what 
Christians ought to do. 


What we learn by the great meekness of our Lord 

Jesus, in bearing reproaches of the world, and by 

His peaceable conversation in the same. 

In time of distress in Egypt, the people 
cried to Pharaoh ; Pharaoh said unto the 
people, " Go to Joseph, and what he saith 
unto you, do it^." In our discomforts of the 
world, let us go unto Christ, He by His ex- 
ample and precepts, wiU shew us what we 
should do ; by His example, for when He 
wrought miracles, it was said He was a sor- 
cerer; when He cast out devils^, "that He 

a Psalm ex: i. 9. a Gen. xli. 5^. b John viii. 48. 

o c 

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cast them out by Beelzebub, the prince of 
devils c," When He sought the saving of 
souls. He was held a seducer''; when He 
received sinners. He was a " friend of sin- 
ners e;" and so was He indeed, for never had 
sinners such a friend as Christ our Saviour 
was. When He healed the sick. He was a 
"breaker of the sabbath V' in a word, while 
He was seeking to save them, they ceased not 
to malign Him, according to that of the Pro- 
phet ; " They rendered Me evil for good, and 
hatred for My good-willg," and yet He was 
patient. So then we must learn by His ex- 
ample, how to bear the contumelies of this 
world with a calm and quiet mind. We 
must learn it also by His precepts. Who willed 
His Disciples " to learn of Him to be humble 
and meekh," Who pronounceth them blessed, 
" that endured to be reviled, and to be spoken 
evil of for His Name's sake','' and prescribeth 
a sovereign medicine against all adversities in- 

c Matt. xii. 24. b Luke xxiii. 14. e Matt. xi. 19. 

f John V. 16. gPs. XXXV. 12. 

h Matt. xl. 29. i Matt. v. 11. 

D- o 

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cident to the life of man, saying, " In your 
patience possess your souls'^." 

In going over the life of the Son of God, 
what else do we find it but a life of continual 
suffering, and not only that, but of mild suf- 
fermg? " For He was," saith the Prophet 
Isaiah, " yea, as a lamb before the shearer, as 
a lamb that opened not his mouth before the 
shearer 1." For behold we Him in His Passion, 
there shall we find His eyes full of tears. His 
mouth full of gall. His ears full of contumeUes, 
His head full of thorns, His heart full of sor- 
rows, and amidst all, Himself praying for His 
persecutors. At this time He is derided, 
•' He saved others. Himself He cannot save ;" 
nay, had He saved Himself, He had not saved 
others, and because He would save others. He 
would not save Himself. Again, they said 
unto Him, " Come down from the cross, if 
Thou be the Son of God;" "whence," saith 
St. Gregory, " if Christ, when He was re- 
proached, had come down from the cross, 
giving place to those that insulted over Him, 

k Lukexxi. 19. 1 Isai. llii. 7, 

6 _ c 

3 ^ . O 


where had the virtue of patience been ?" We 
see He expecteth awhile, suiFereth reproaches 
and derisions that were offered Him, and He 
that would not come down from the cross, rose 
up from the sepulchre ; and that was a greater 
matter to rise from the sepulchre, than to 
come down from the cross, to destroy death 
by rising, than to save hfe by descending. Of 
Whose patience, St. Cyprian saith, " Oh, how 
mildly did He give place to His persecutors ! 
i How quietly bare He reproaches offered ! 
He was crowned with thorns, to crown Mar- 
tyrs with glory ! He was fed with gall, to give 
us manna from Heaven ! He was laden with 
reproaches, to free us from blame'"!" 

We read in St. Luke, that when His Dis- 
ciples would have had Him call for fire from 
Heaven, as Elias didn. He answered them 
meekly, "You know not of what spirit you 
I are," whether of that in the Law, which re- 
j quired severity, or of this of the Gospel, which 
would have mercy. And in the Gospel by 
St. John, that albeit the people were a little 

] II) Cyprian, de bona patient. n Luke ix. <4. 

D— . o 



before ready to stone Himo, yet again, by and 
by. He goes to teach and instruct them, as if 
He had clean forgot all the wrong they did 
intend against Him. 

If ever we call our best attention to ob- 
serve, then let us do it in observing the 
patience of Christ, in bearing the reproaches 
of this world ; to suffer, we must be content, 
it was His case that now sits at the right 
hand of God in Heaven. " Patience," saith 
St. Ambrose, "it is hke Rebecca, who willed 
Jacob to endure a little his brother's wrath ; 
when the storm is blown over, all will be well." 

Many examples we have, saith St. James, 
of suffering ; " take," saith he, " the prophets 
for an exampleP." Though Moses did often 
entreat for the people, yet the people did sting 
him with their tongues q. What came of it ? 
The people a little after were stung with the 
" tongues of fiery serpents." Joseph, saith 
St, Ambrose, had two great troubles at once, 
the one of temptation, the other of calumni- 
ation ; the temptation he overcame, the ca- 

o John xi. 8. p James v, lo. q Numb. xxi. J. 






lumniation did awhile stick by him, until his 
cause was known, and then his disgrace was 
turned into glory. David had many hard 
words when Shimei did curse hun ; David 
bears all, and bethinks himself if this were not 
a chastisement sent from God. 

Fulgentius, a reverend prelate, being much 
injured by certain Arians, when he was ad- 
vised to convent those malicious men before 
the magistrate, No, saith he, I refer my cause 
to another tribunal. Tertullian sheweth how 
the Christians bare with admirable patience 
all reproaches : and, St. Cyprian saith, that 
they made their prayers, that those who did 
persecute them here for a time, might at last 
come to the knowledge of God, and so rejoice 
with them hereafter. 

Thus after the example of the Son of God, 
and of all the servants of God in all ages, 
we learn patiently to endure the hard usage 
of this world. 

In our injuries let us evermore call to mind 
that our Lord and Saviour took on Him our 
miseries, and endured injuries. Who from the 


o ( 


hour of His birth until His death was not 
free from suffering grief. For benefits He 
received ingratitude ; oh, how are we bound 
unto Him for shewing us the way of suffering 
unto this heavenly kingdom ! 

Though the seas rage, and the waves beat 
against the rock, they hurt not the rock, 
but are themselves turned into froth. Men- 
tion is made by those who write the natures 
of things, that the herb Dyanton, though you 
throw water never so oft upon it, you shall 
notwithstanding ever find it dry. The waters 
of tribulation may be poured out upon the pa- 
tient, for all that they are evermore the same, 
faithful, constant. A Christian being asked 
what fruit he had by Christ, Is not this fruit, 
said he, not to be moved at your reproaches ? 
this he spake to his calumniators. In cases 
of this nature, we must refer all to God. If 
thou hold thy peace God speaks for thee ; 
and if God speaks for thee, it is better than 
thou canst speak for thyself. David saith, 
" I held my peace, for it was Tliy doing""." 

r Psalm xxxix. g. 

O : ( 

3 O 


God remove envy from the minds of Christ- 
ians! for it is a diabohcal vice and sendeth 
forth its arrows, even bitter words ; but 
patience is like a privy coat, that makes these 
arrows recoil, and even to hurt those who 
did intend hurt to others, which are the 
envious. The Prophet David likens these to 
the asp, a beast that is but ill sighted, yet 
quick of hearing ; weak, yet full of poison : 
wherefore, as I said, God remove envy from 
Christians : the godly are amongst the en- 
vious, as Lot amongst the Sodomites, as 
Sampson amongst the Philistines. 

Trees well rooted endure all storms ; the 
fortress may be assaulted, but not won or 
yielded over : constant minds have many trials, 
but they are armed to endure all. A good 
conscience at home, saith St. Ambrose, is not 
much moved at unjust contumelies abroad: 
by the same fire the gold is purified and the 
J dross rejected ; by the same wind the good 
grain is cleansed and the chaff is scattered : 
by the same sun the clay is stiffened and 
the wax melted : by the same affliction the dis- 


o c 


solute are hardened and the godly more in- 

We cannot give better proof how we have 
profited in the school of Christ, than by 
shewing to men Whose scholars we are in 
taking all patiently. The three children walk- 
ed up and down in the fiery flames ^ praising 
God. The refuge of the righteous man is, 
"Lord, whom have! in Heaven but Thee*?" 
Truth, saith Tertullian, is a stranger on earth, 
where it hath many enemies and but few 
friends. Jacob, blessing the sons of Joseph, 
he blessed them with a cross : the greatest 
blessing that ever came unto the world came 
by a cross, and there is no blessing in the 
world without a cross ; I mean some adver- 
sity of this life. When the master of the 
house is called Beelzebub, why coraplainest 
thou? Let God be God, and do as beseems 
Him best in bringing us into His kingdom. 

Last of all, consider the peaceable conver- 
sation of Christ in this world : art thou mock- 
ed ? So was He of Herod's men of war. 

a Dan. iii. 2J. t Psalm Ixxiii. 25. j 

o ^ 

3 O 


Art thou reviled ? So was He of the Jews. 
Do false witnesses arise against thee ? So did 
they against Him. Art thou betrayed ? So 
was He by one of His own Disciples, and 
steward of His temporalities. In all these it 
was said, " Learn of Me to be humble and 
meek^." Zechariah saith, speaking of the 
manner of Christ His coming, " Behold, the 
King Cometh in meek manner v." When the 
blessed Virgin began to expostulate with Him 
for losing Himself, as she thought, He mildly 
answered, " that He must go about His 
Father's business." When His Apostle, St. 
Peter, drew out his sword and struck off the 
ear of the High Priest's servant, his mUd 
Master, parting the fray, saith unto him, 
" Put up thy sword into thy sheath." In His 
last supper, when He was sohcited to name 
him that should betray Him, He would not 
name him, for had He named him, saith 
Austin, it is very likely Peter would have 
torn him with his teeth. Merciful Lord, how 
mild a demeanour was this ! His Apostles 

u Matt. xi. 29. V Zech. ix. 9. 

p o 

o — — o 


hearing Him tell of His departure from them, 
waxed sorrowful", and surely well might they 
be sorrowful, in respect of the benefit they 
enjoyed by His Presence : for if at any time 
they were fearful. He strengthened them ; if 
ignorant. He instructed them ; if moved to 
choler. He appeased them. So He governed 
them as a Father, instructed them as a Master, 
counselled them as a Friend, and in all He 
shewed them a pattern of mildness, and of a 
most peaceable conversation, insomuch, that 
when it was said of Him, " He receiveth sin- 
ners Y," Christ denied it not, but approves the 
deed by three parables, and that it was the end 
of His coming to call sinners to repentance. 

By all this we see how much it concerneth 
us who of Christ are called Christians, to 
study to be quiet, and if it be possible, as 
much as in us lieth, to live peaceably with all 
men ; which God of His mercy grant us all 
grace to do, by the example of Christ Jesus, 
and the blessed assistance of Christ Jesus. So 
be it. Amen, 

X John xiv. i, a. y Luke xiv. i, 2. 

o- c 

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Of the name of Jesus. 

Jbsus is in Hebrew interpreted Saviour; 
a name, saith Eusebius^, had in much honour 
amongst the old patriarchs, and now attri- 
buted unto the Son of God : a name brought 
from Heaven by the angel Gabriel » : " Thou 
shalt be called by a name which the mouth 
of God shall give^ :" and well might it come 
from Heaven from whence all blessedness 
comes. Though in the old Law, others had 
the appellation of this name, as Joshua the 
son of Nunc, and Joshua the High Priest d, 
which came forth with the people after their 
captivity, yet had these their names no way 
comparable to this of our Lord and Saviour ; 
for they were only saviours of the body, but 
Christ was a Saviour of souls. For those 
others to whom this name was given, they 
had it of men, at the time of their Circum- 

z Lib. I. cap. i. a Matt, i, 31. b Isai. Ixil. 3. 

c Josh. i. I, d Zecb. iii. t. 

O O 

O V 


cision, this was given of God before the 
conception ; in their names was included 
the saving of a multitude of people from some 
worldly servitude ; but in this, of saving His 
believing people from their sins ; " And thou 
shalt call His name Jesus ^;" wherein is 
expressed the imposition and the reason of 
His name : in the reason these four things 
are to be observed : i. Author oper'is. Ipse, 
" He:" 2. Opus salvabit, " He shall save:" 

3. Conditio salvandorum, "His people:" 

4. Modus salvandi, "the manner of saving; 
a saving from their sins." " And thou shalt 
call His name Jesus ;" O sweet name, who 
is so deaf that at the hearing of this name, 
his ears are not filled with joy ? Who so dead, 
that hath not his senses raised up with delight 
when he remembereth the message of the 
Angel, " and thou shalt call His name Jesus !" 

" This name Jesus," saith St. Bernard ^ " it 
is honey in the mouth, harmony in the ear, 
melody in the heart." " This name Jesus," 
saith Anselm, " is a name of comforting sin- 

e Matt. i. 21. f In can. serm. xv. ' 

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ners when they call upon Him, therefore he 
himself saith, " Jesus be my Jesus." This 
name is above all names ; first, for that it v^as 
consecrated from everlasting ; secondly, for 
that it was given of God ; thirdly, for that it 
was desired of the Patriarchs ; fourthly, for 
that it was foretold of the Prophets ; fifthly, 
for that it was accomplished in the time of 
grace ; magnified of the Apostles, witnessed of 
the Martyrs, acknowledged and honoured shaU 
it be of all believers unto the world's end." 

This name Jesus, it is compared unto " oil 
poured outS," oil being kept close, it sendeth 
not forth such an odoriferous savour as it doth 
being poured out ; and oil hath these proper- 
ties, it suppleth, it cherisheth, it enlighteneth, 
it maketh look cheerfully, it will be ever 
above ; so doth this name of Jesus, it suppleth 
the hardness of our hearts, it cherisheth the 
weakness of our faith, it enlighteneth the dark- 
ness of the soul, dispersing the foggy mists of 
discomfort, and it maketh man look with a 
cheerful countenance towards the throne of 

g Can. i. 3. 

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o— o 


grace ; it is above all names. Last of all, 
it is not only compared to an ointment, but 
to an ointment " poured out^i :" as if before, 
mercy came from God by drops ; but since 
this name was given, mercy is poured out in 

Our Lord in Holy Scripture hath many 
divine resemblances in names to express His 
nature ; sometimes He is called a Shepherd, 
for that He vratcheth His flock ; sometimes a 
Captain, because He defendeth His army ; a 
Prince in that He governeth His people ; Light, 
because He illurainateth those that are in 
darkness ; a Door, by which men do enter ; 
a Rock, upon which they do build ; but in 
brief, this name Jesus includes all ; for in 
this He shews not so much what He is in 
Himself, as what He is to us, seeing He 
vouchsafeth to carry our benefit in His name. 

H. This name Jesus is a name of interces- 
sion ; " Whatsoever you ask the Father in My 
name' :" and therefore may that of the Pro- 
phet be remembered ; " Not unto us. Lord, 

h Can. i. 3. I John xiv. 13. 

o o 

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not unto us, but unto Thy name give the 
praise''." God did so much for Abraham's, 
for Moses' and David's sake, what shall He 
do for Jesus' sake ? This name Jesus is a 
name of power, for in this name the Apostles 
gave strength unto the weak, health unto the 
sick, and wrought many other great miracles. 
" Lord, how wonderful is Thy name in all the 
world 1 !" 

This name Jesus is a name of invocation, 
not only in a time of distress, while we are 
living, to say with the blind man, " Jesus, 
Thou Son of David, have mercy upon me"* ;" 
but with the blessed Martyr, St. Stephen, in 
our last extremities when we are dying, " Lord 
Jesus, receive my spirit J^!" 

Last of all ; this name Jesus is a name of 
remission of sins ; " your sins are forgiven 
for His name's sake," saith St. John^ ; now 
He will be as good as His name and to 
save you from your sins. The Prophet David, 
in his distress he maketh this prayer to God, 

k Psalm cxv. i. 1 Psalm viii. i. m Luke xviii. 38. 

n Acts vii. 59. o i Ep. li. la. 

O o 

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" say unto my soul, I am thy salvation? !" as if 
he should have said. Lord, thou hast many 
names of power and greatness, once take a 
name of mercy and goodness, "say unto my 
soul, I am thy Jesus, that is, I am thy salva- 

III. But how is it that at the hearing of 
other names of God, as " Elohim, Elohi, Yl, 
Eloi, Elion, Jehovah, Ja, Adonai, Shaddai, 
El-Sabaoth," which signify His essence, power, 
omnipotency, we are not so much moved ? 
And " at this name Jesus," the Apostle saith, 
" every knee shall bow," not only the knees of 
our heart, which at this name should bow 
and bend indeed, but every knee ! He that 
created the body should have reverence of the 
body : the Apostle goeth further, saying, " of 
things both in Heaven and earth, and under 
the earth Q;" but why at this name of God 
above all other ? Because this name cost 
much, when it was bought by the blood, by 
the honour, by the life of the Son of God 
Himself; and it was written upon the cross 

p Psalm xxxT. 3. q Phil. ii. 10. 

o- o 



over His head, Jesus, as the cause of His 
death and Passion, because He was a Saviour. 
Now seeing it cost such a price, we ought 
with all reverence to be thankful for it ; He 
humbled Himself in procuring it, and we 
therefore in recei\ang it. Jesus, a Saviour, 
therefore God : Christ anointed, and so the 
Holy One of God. Jesus in Hebrew for the 
Jews, Christ in Greek for the Gentiles : Jesus 
to save sinners, and Christ in respect of us 
all to kill sin, saith Bonaventura. It is the 
property of a Saviour, first, to encounter with 
the enemy ; secondly, to help with counsel ; 
thirdly, to give strength ; fourthly, not to 
save once but still ; fifthly, not one, but many ; 
sixthly, not for a time, but for ever ; all 
which our Lord Jesus fully accomphshed. 

And sure, most convenient was it, that He 
who came to save sinners, should have a name 
answerable thereunto. For names, saith Isi- 
dore % were given of old according unto the 
properties of the person named. And there- 
fore Abraham was so named, because he 

r Etym. lib. vii. cap. 7. 

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should be the father of many nations. Esau, 
rough, because such were his manners, actions, 
and conditions. Ahishar, brother of mourn- 
ing, because such were his passions. Ari- 
starchus, a right and good governor, who was 
companion to St. Paul. So to omit many 
other, we see names were often given to 
express the principal properties of those who 
were named ; and therefore this name Jesus 
is a name of saving ; of which the Apostle 
saith, " there is no other name given under 
Heaven whereby we may be saved f." The 
blind man in the Gospel said, " the man that 
is called Jesus s." Thinking Him to be a man 
only, therein he was blind indeed. Festus 
saith, " one Jesus*," yea, Festus, this one 
Jesus was He that lives and reigns for ever 
in glory. 

St. Luke saith, " and they Circumcised the 
Child the eighth day, and called His name 
Jesus ^1." The Child ! what humility was here 
when so high a Lord accepted so small a 


r Acts iv. 12. 8 John ix. ii. 

t Acts XXV. 19. u Luke ii. 21. 

o -o 


name ! " They called His name," not gave 
Him His name : it is of God, not of man ; 
let God be reverenced, let man tremble at it. 
Our Saviour's name is Jesus, a name that 
came from Heaven, and well from Heaven, 
from whence comes all goodness. 

IV. In the old Law, Jesus was the expect- 
ation of nations, but in the new, Jesus is 
the salvation of the nations. If at any time 
we have lost Jesus, what should we but with 
Mary and Joseph seek Him sorrowing? " O 
sweet Saviour," saith St. Bernard, " if Thou 
wert not found amongst Thine own kindred, 
how should I look to find Thee amongst my 
kindred ! Or if Thine own mother found Thee 
not but after sorrowing for Thee, how shall 
I rejoice except I find Thee ?" But how 
should we seek Him ? When Jesus is present, 
all is well, nothing seemeth difficult ; but when 
Jesus is absent, all is hard and uneasy. When 
Jesus speaketh not inwardly, vile is all our 
consolation, but when Jesus speaks one word 
only, there is felt great comfort. Did not 
Mary Magdalen straight arise from the place 

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whereon she wept, when Martha said unto 
her, " The Master calleth for thee ?" Happy 
honour, when Jesus calleth from tears to joy. 
How dry and hard art thou without Jesus ! 
How foolish and vain if thou covetest any 
thing without Jesus ! Is not this greater loss 
than if thou hadst lost the whole world ? 
What can the world bestow without Jesus ? 
To be without Jesus is a grievous hell, and 
to be with Jesus is a sweet paradise. If 
Jesus be with thee no enemy can hurt thee ; 
if Jesus be from thee, no friend can help ; 
he is most poor that liveth without Jesus, 
and he is most rich who is with Jesus. 

There is great art to know how to be con- 
versant with Jesus, and wisdom to learn how 
to possess Him; be humble and at peace, and 
Jesus will be with thee ; be devout and quiet, 
and Jesus will not depart from thee ; thou 
mayest drive Jesus away, and lose His grace, 
if thou decline to external things ; and if thou 
hast lost Him, to whom wilt thou fly .? What 
friend wilt thou seek ? Without a friend thou 
canst not long continue ; and if Jesus be not 

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thy friend, thou wilt be heavy and desolate. 
Thou dost therefore foolishly, if thou repose 
or rejoice in any other ; thou oughtest rather 
to have the world thine enemy than to offend 
Christ Jesus ; wherefore, of all things dear 
unto thee, let Jesus be especially beloved. 
All things for Jesus, and Jesus for Himself ; 
for Him, and in Him, let all be alike unto 
thee. See thou never desire to be praised 
or loved singularly ; neither let another possess 
thee, or dwell in thine heart, for this apper- 
taineth only to Jesus. Be pure, and at inward 
liberty without the implicaturesof the world, 
if thou wUt bare thy heart to Jesus and see . 
how sweet the Lord is. 

V. Finally, thou oughtest net to be cast 
down by any adversity, but patiently to endure 
all that shall happen^ remembering this happy 
name Jesus, to which thou mayest fly as to a 
city of refuge". Jesus is the joy of us Christ- 
ians ; He was bom for us, given to us ; He 
was the price of our ransom, and therefore our 
Redeemer ; He was the Author of our being, 

X Deut. iv. 43. 

O- ^. O 

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and therefore " whatsoever we do," saith the 
Apostle, " let us do all in the name of the 
Lord Jesus y." In nomine Jesu, must be the 
beginning ; In auxilio Jesu, must be the pro- 
secuting ; In laudem Jesu, must be the con- 


What we learn by Jesus Christ His teaching His 

Disciples to pray, and of that Divine form of 

prayer He taught them. 

Three principal exercises there are of 
Christian piety before all other ; alms, fast- 
ing, and prayer. These we use as medicines 
to cure evils past, to drive away those that 
are present, and to prevent such as are to 
come. Alms and fasting, as two wings, carry 
our prayers upward ; if our prayers soar up- 
ward, God's mercies come down. Jacob saw 

y Col.iii. 17. 

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Angels ascending and descending, but none 
standing still, saith St. Bernard. Our prayers, 
like ascending Angels, go up to God ; God's 
mercies, like descending Angels, come down 
to us. 

II. Wonderful was the providence of Al- 
mighty God, in ordering all things that did 
appertain unto the tabernacle of old^. There 
was not any particular thing about it, but 
an express form was set down, how and 
after what manner it must be done. Now 
we have not a material ark or tabernacle, for 
these were shadows of things to come, but 
we have a form of worshipping God which is 
more excellent, with all things appertaining 
to this worship. Christ our Saviour hath set 
all in order about this tabernacle, and first 
of all concerning our sacrifice of Prayer ; this 
He layeth down with many circumstances, as 
by the prayer of the Publican, teaching to 
pray with humility a; by the parable of the 
widow, to pray with importunity I' ; by His 
commendation of the woman of Canaan, to 

I Exod. XXV. 3. a Luke xviH. 13. b Matt. xv. 28. 

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pray with fervency ; by His disliking the Pha- 
risees for their desire to be seen praying, to 
pray secretly in our chambers^ and other such 
like directions for prayer ; whereby we may 
see that our devotion is no by-matter where- 
about the Son of God is so often instructing 

The Disciples of our Saviour seeing Him 
their Master oftentimes to pray, they pre- 
sently conceived within themselves, doubtless 
prayer is a matter of great importance, other- 
wise our ]Master would never pray so oft as 
He doth, wherefore they do come unto Him, 
making request unto Him "to teach them to 

HI. Now Christ at this time teacheth His 
Disciples a form of prayer ; " When you pray," 
saith He, " pray after this manner : Our Fa- 
ther," &c. Surely a most Divine form of 
prayer, above all other in the world, and so 
much the more excellent, by how much the 
more the Author thereof is above men and 
Angels. St. Austin calleth it a prayer of 

b Matt. vi. 6. c Luke xi. 2, 3. 

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prayers d. TertuUian, a breviary of our faith e, 
" O, what prayer," saith St. Cyprian, " is 
more gracious with the Father, than that 
which is deUvered unto us of the Son^" And 
how comfortably may we pray unto God, when 
we do not only use His name to countenance 
our suits, but even His own words ! And 
here we may observe, that Christ setteth 
down a prescript form of prayer, to shew 
unto us that all our prayers should not run 
upon indigested words and senseless tauto- 
logies, as many unwisely have dreamed of, 
voluntary extemporal praying, which doth 
much detract from this excellent part of God's 

In the book of Numbers, Almighty God 
laid down unto the Priests a direct form how 
to "bless the peoples." In Joel, the very 
words are mentioned which penitent sinners 
should useli in their conversion to God, " Be 
favourable, O Lord," &c. and here Christ we 
see prescribes a form of prayer, which for 

d Aug. Serm. post Pente. e TertuU. in Orat. Dom. 

f Cypr. in Orat. Dom. g Num. vi. 24, s^. h Joel ii. 15. 

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Q ___ _ , 


division sake may branch itself into a proem, 

and seven several petitions adjoined unto the 


I. " When you pray," saith Christ our 

Saviour, " say after this manner. Our Father 

which art in Heaven." 

This proem may inclusively be understood 

at the beginning of every petition. In that 

Christ, first of all, teacheth us to call God 
Father, we are in the first place emboldened 
to make our suits unto Him ; lest we might 
say as Abraham, What be we which are but 
dust and ashes, to speak unto God } But 
when we consider Him as a Father in the 
very beginning of our prayers, we acknowledge 
His love, and His bounty and grace, to move 
us to come unto Him : the wandering son 
said, " I will go to my fatherli." Secondly, 
it is a name of privilege ; He hath given us, 
saith the Apostle, His Spirit, " whereby we 
cry, Abba, Father'." Thirdly, it is a name of 
providence, " your heavenly Father careth for 
you*^." But how come we to call God by a , 

I hLukexv. i8. i Rom. viii. i^. k Matt. vi. 33. I 

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name of love, of privilege, of providence ? 
Surely He that willed us to call Him Father, 
hath made Him our Father : " He hath given 
us power to become the sons of Godl." 
" Who durst," saith St. Cyprian, " pray to 
God by the name of Father, if Christ our 
Advocate did not put these words in our 
mouths ?" 

In the old Law, God is called by the name 
of a Lord : I, the Lord : there His people are 
called servants. Now from the name of Lord, 
He is called Father, and His people from ser- 
vants are become sons, and all by the means 
of Christ : " I ascend to My Father and your 
Father m." 

Now calling God Father, as it is a name of 
dignity, for it is thought to go well with the 
children of a rich and loving father, so is it a 
name of duty, and as He hath the properties 
of a Father to love, to care for, to pity His 
children, so should we have the properties of 
children, to honour, to serve, to obey this 
Father of ours ; lest it be said as it was once 

1 John i. 13. m John XX. 17. 

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o ^ g 


of some, " I have nourished and brought up 
children, and they have rebelled against Me*^." 
IV. Again, as we say Father, so say we 
Our Father, not my Father. We pray all in 
one, saith St. Cyprian, Pater Noster, Our 
Father ; a form of prayer presupposed to be 
said of many, amongst whom there is a fra- 
ternity. Let not the rich or mighty despise 
the poor and miserable, it pleaseth Christ to 
have us altogether call to God, our Father; 
and therefore none ought to disdain other, but 
mutually to pray one for another. And as we 
say Our Father, so we shew Him to be also 
an heavenly Father, in that we mention Him 
to be in Heaven we confess what manner of 
Father we mean, to wit, heavenly, to distin- 
guish Him from other fathers, and that we 
be not degenerate children, we should be 
heavenly also as He is heavenly. 

In Heaven ! what more powerful than to 
have a Father in Heaven. In Heaven ! then 
howsoever we are distressed on earth, the com- 
fort is, we have a Father in Heaven. In 

n Isai. i. 2. 


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Heaven ! therefore is our inheritance in Hea- 
ven. In Heaven ! therefore praying we lift 
up our eyes unto the hills, as the Prophet 
speaketho. In Heaven! not as placing His 
Divine power only there, which filleth Heaven 
and earth, but we say in Heaven, because 
there chiefly His glory doth shew itself ; there 
He blesseth the Saints and Angels. Well 
then, saith St. Austin, we have a Father in 
Heaven, let us not cleave to things here on 
earth ; we have found our Father, we have 
found our country. 

V. In the first of the seven petitions we 
say, " Hallowed be Thy name." Beginning 
to pray, we forget our own necessities, and 
make a petitio* first for God our heavenly 
Father His glory. We remember we have 
the dignity to be children ; being childi-en of 
such a Father, therefore by and by we pray 
for our Father's glory, " Hallowed be Thy 
name," Christ sought His Father's glory P, 
and Christians also ought to seek His glory, 
and the hallowing of His name. It is said of 

I o Psalm cxxi. i. p John xvii. 4. 

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the wicked, "you have polluted My NameP," 
but the care of the children of God is to 
hallow God's name. 

In that we pray that God's name should be 
hallowed ; it is not but that God's name was 
holy from everlasting ; " for Holy and Reve- 
rend is His namei." But in this petition we i 
pray that the name of God may be hallowed j 
both of us, and in us ; of us when we say " unto : 
Thy Name give the praise ;" in us when we live j 
worthy of Him. Many have had great and ' 
mighty names, but none a holy name except 
Godj and therefore we pray, " Hallowed be ■ 
Thy Name," not that we only would hallow it, 
but let it be hallowed ; let all Jews and 
Infidels honour God, that His name may be : 
hallowed " from the rising of the sun unto the | 
going down thereof r." 

VI. In the second petition we pray, " Thy j 
kingdom come," and this petition we utter and j 
mention, saith St. Chrysostoms, with minds ' 
lifted up. Seeing we have a Father and a j 

p Isai. lii. j. q Psalm cxi. 9. | 

r Psalm cxiii. 3. 8 In Orat. Dom. 

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kingdom, we therefore pray that we may once 
come to the enjoying' hereof, saying, "Thy 
kingdom come." Seeing we are here in the 
way where all is weariness, and on the con- 
trary side, knowing our inheritance is above, 
love, which is impatient of delay, makes us 
desire the coming of this kingdom. Now as 
God hath a kingdom of glory, so also hath 
He a kingdom of grace. And as in praying 
for the kingdom of glory, we bid all earthly 
glory, riches, delights, and honours farewell; 
so also do we pray, leaving all sinful desires, for 
the coming of the kingdom of grace within 
us, that is God, that His Spirit may rule and 
reign in our hearts, and there have the pre- 
eminency. And herewithal we pray also for 
the kingdom of His Church; that whereas 
Christ is called a King, and His kingdom in 
the world is spiritual, we pray that His sceptre 
may sway, that all may yield obedience and 
faith to His government, rejecting the tyranny 
of the prince of darkness ; and for all these, 
severally or altogether, we pray, "Thy king- 





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VII. In the third petition we pray, "Thy 
will be done :" this may be called a petition 
of duty ; for seeing we expect in time to come 
a kingdom in Heaven, our dutiful desire is 
to do His will who gives us this kingdom. 
Like that care of the Apostle, "Lord, what 
wilt Thou that I dot ?" As one ready to do His 
will. Who in mercy called him. 

" Thy will be done," that is, not our obsti- 
nate and rebellious wills, but, Lord, Thy will 
revealed in Tliy word. We will, and we will 
not, say the wicked, but Thy will Lord, be 
done, the godly say, saith St. Chrysostora. 
There is nothing more fondly loved, or more 
hardly resisted, than our own wills, therefore 
our desire is, that we may cross our own wills, 
referring all to the will of God. And this 
petition we pray with a sicut, saying, "Thy 
will be done in earth, as it is in Heaven;" 
Lord, those of that joyful assembly in Heaven 
do Thy will above, and we desire to do Thy 
will beneath, or to begin for a time to do that 

t Acts ix. 6. 


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here on earth, which we hope to do with Thy 
Saints and Angels for ever in Heaven. 

VIII. Now because we cannot continue the 
doing of God's will here on earth, without 
things necessary for our earthly condition, 
therefore in the fourth place we pray, " Give 
us this day our daUy bread," wherein first we 
acknowledge, that we wholly depend upon 
God's providence to receive all things neces- 
sary for the preservation of the life present. 
Secondly, that we crave them at His hands 
when we say, " give us," according unto that 
of the Prophet, " Thou giving, we gather^." 
With His giving there is our endeavouring; 
with God's increasing, Paul's planting. Give, 
an action of Uberality and love : give us our 
bread ; our bread, not ours as due, but our bread, 
or the bread of us Thy children, which Thou art 
wont to bestow, and in mercy to give unto them. 
Quotidianum, daily bread, or as some say, tov 
dpTov (mova-iov, supersubstantialem, our super- 
substantial bread, to wit, the bread of life. 

u Psalm cxlv. 15. 

D — 6 

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We pray to-day, " Give us this day our 
daily bread," or as some say, day by day ; 
and if we live till to-morrow, we pray the 
same again, as if every day we look up unto 
God, that He may in mercy look down upon 
us, and send things necessary for the life pre- 
sent. Some think this petition to be the poor 
men's petition only. No, rich and poor must 
pray for this bread ; for what are earthly 
creatures to mantain life without His blessing, 
who is the Author of life ? Last of all, when 
we pray, " Give us this day our daily bread," 
we pray, saith an ancient Father p, neither for 
riches nor for dehcatesi, but for things neces- 
sary unto life, according to the wise man's 
prayer, neither too much that we do not for- 
get God, nor too little that we forswear Him ; 
only a competency, and so be thankful to the 
Giver of all. Last of all, we pray for bread, 
and by bread is understood all necessary sus- 
tenance for man's life in this present world. 

IX. Having begged at the hands of God 
things necessary for the life present, because, 

p Chrysost. in Orat. Dom. q Prov. xxx. 8, g. 

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as the Prophet Jeremiah saith, " our sins do 
make God take these good things from us^ ;" 
in the fifth place therefore we pray for the 
forgiveness of our sins, saying, " forgive us our 
debts and trespasses," whence we learn that 
our sins are debts and trespasses; for when 
we sin, we run in debt and commit trespass 
against our God. "We owe Him obedience, 
and therefore are indebted by our sins ; we do 
Him wrong, and therefore are trespassers, 
which we beseech Him in mercy to forgive ; 
and so this petition is f^oficoXoyrj^is, an ac- 
knowledgment or confession what we are, to 
wit, sinners. And this we aU pray, saith Cyp- 
rian, because we all sin, " forgive us our tres- 
passes ;" ours, and therefore of our own com- 
mitting ; we may not post off the matter as 
Adam did, with " the woman that Thou gavest 
me caused me to sin^," whereas indeed the 
sin was his own in giving consent. 

This forgiving of our sins we crave with a 
clause annexed, " as we forgive them that 
trespass against us ;" whereby we shew first, 

r Jer. v. 25. s Gen. iii. 12. 

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that there is a necessity laid upon us of for- 
giving them that offend us ; secondly, we shew 
of what spirit we are, in that we find in our 
hearts to forgive others, and therefore we 
beseech God to forgive us. Cassianus* writeth, 
that some in his time would leave out this 
clause, as the Pelagians would have done the 
former, for which they were taxed by a coun- 
cil^. We must think Christ taught us a most 
heavenly form of prayer which is complete, 
and impiety were it to alter the same : we 
must shew mercy that look for mercy, and 
forgive that look for forgiveness ; wherefore 
with charitable minds we ought ever to say, 
" forgive us our trespasses as we forgive them 
that trespass against us." 

X. When we have craved pardon for our 
sins past, we begin to be careful for the time 
to come ; and so in the sixth petition we pray 
against "leading into temptation;" the for- 
giving of our sins is a procuring of good ; the 

t In Orat. Dom. 

u Cone. Mil. sub Innoc. I Can. sep. 

6 c 

D O 


not leading into temptation is a removing 
away that which is evil. 

In this petition, first, we acknowledge our 
own infirmity ; ready to be led into tempt- 
ation ; and secondly, we pray for a prevent- 
ing grace, that when temptation comes, we 
be not overcome of it. St. Cyprian reads it, 
" and lead us not, and sufier us not to be 
led;" not that God doth lead us, but we 
rather lead ourselves in consenting to tempta- 
tions when they come, whether they be tempt- 
ations of peace or persecution, afflicting or 
flattering; and of the two, the latter is the 
more dangerous. Some of the ancient Fathers 
understaud it, that in this petition we pray to 
be delivered from all temptations whatsoever, 
because we know not how soon we may fall ; 
others by leading into temptation, that we be 
not willing to consent, and be led or carried 
away by temptations and so seduced ; and this 
may be our humble petition, either for prevent- 
ing temptations before they come, or when 
they come that they do not prevail. 

XII. And this is an entrance to the seventh 


o c 


and last petition ; " but deliver us from evil." 
We pray to be delivered from all evil, that is, 
if sometimes we fall into temptation, yet that 
we do not fall Hke the elephant who falling, 
riseth not again ; but either to be delivered or 
to come forth. This praying to be delivered 
from all evil, doth include all dangers and 
mischances both of body and soul, present or 
to come, by sea or by land, sleeping or waking, 
bodily or ghostly, that may befall ourselves or 
others, when we say " deliver us," which we 
also insert in the other petition, as not praying 
for ourselves alone, for our own good and safety 
only, but for the good and safety of others as 
well as for our own. To all which petitions 
we beseech God, who hath vouchsafed us to 
pray unto Him, to give His blessed grant from 
this time forth and for evermore. Amen. 






What we learn by Christ His often praying, especially 
by His prayer at His agony in the garden. 

Paradise, or that garden wherein Adam 
committed sin was called a garden of plea- 
sure ; but paradise, or that garden wherein 
the second Adam made an expiation for sin, 
may well be called a garden of sorrow. In 
the first of these gardens, sin began ; in the 
second, a satisfaction for sin : in the first of 
these gardens, the first Adam by his disobedi- 
ence provoked God; in the second garden, 
the second Adam by his obedience appeased 
the wrath of God, when in His agony His 
prayers went up to Heaven, and His drops 
of water and blood fell down upon the earth. 
His prayers going up to appease God in Hea- 
ven, and His tears falhng down for the good 
of men beneath on the earth. 

II. Let us here duly consider, that the Son 
1 needed not of Himself to have prayed unto 

) o 

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His Father in Heaven after this fervent man- 
ner ; the only intention of His mind lifted 
up, had been sufficient in Him to have mani- 
fested His desires to God ; His praying in His 
agony, was to give us an example of praying 
earnestly and feelingly to God in our agonies 
as He prayed in His agony. 

HI. For our better instruction in our best, 
and best disposed meditation, let us here call 
to mind a little the circumstances touching 
Christ His praying, and in what manner He 
made His supplications at this time. So 
doing putteth men in mind of His wonderful 
and unspeakable love in praying for us men, 
and for our salvation ; to wit, how He hum- 
bleth Himself in prayer, submitting His will 
unto His Father's ; how He chooseth to pray 
in secret, that He prayeth for to give us an 
example ; how He exhorteth to pray instantly 
by the example of the distressed widow, and 
of the friend who by continual knocking ob- 
tained his desire ; by all which we may per- 
ceive how behoveful a duty prayer is. 

IV. Now to move us to a due consideration . 

O ( 

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of prayer, let us observe at this time Christ's 
praying in the garden r. For He prayed not 
only in the desert, a place of distress, but in 
the garden also^, a place of pleasure, to teach 
us to pray as well in prosperity as in adversity. 
Wherein let us observe and well consider 
these circumstances. First, that it was soli- 
tary, for that He now left His Disciples, as 
He had oftentimes before done, when He went 
alone to pray ; which doth commend unto us 
praying in our secret closet, and when we are 
solitary and apart from all others. 

Secondly, He prayed with humiliation of 
body : St. Luke saith, " He kneeled down and 
prayed*;" St. Matthew and St. Mark, that 
" He fell prostrate upon the earth "." The Evan- 
gelists may soon be reconciled, for it may seem 
He first kneeled, and after\\"ard for faintness 
He was fain to fall prostrate ; and this com- 
mends unto us humiliation in praying. When 
He raised Lazarus, and restored the dumb 
man to the use of speaking, we find '• He 

r Matt. xxvi. 36. s John xviii. i. t Luke xxii. 41. 

u Matt. xxvl. 39. Markxiv. 3«. 


O — 


lifted up His eyes^ to Heaven," which was 
sometimes His gesture in praying. When 
Moses prayed, " he held up his hands until 
the going down of the sun";" which holding 
up of the hands David called "his evening 
sacrifice X." When St. Stephen prayed, "he 
kneeled downy," according to Christ's ex- 
ample here in the second place mentioned. 

The third circumstance to be observed in 
this our Saviour's praying, is, that it was just 
and right ; for He subjected His will to the 
will of His Father, saying, " If Thou wilt ;" 
which doth teach us to resign ourselves in all 
our petitions wholly unto the will of God. 

The fourth, that it was with sorrow, for 
He was in an agony, and this doth put us in 
mind of that of the Apostle, " The Spirit help- 
eth our infirmities, for we know not what to 
pray as we ought, but the Spirit maketh in- 
tercession for us with sighs which cannot 
be expressed^." 

The fifth, that it was vvith perseverence ; 


V Mark vii. 34. John xi. 41. \v Exod. xvii. 11, 12. 

X Psalm cxli. 2. y Acts vii. 60. z Rom. viii. s6. 

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for He came three times unto His Disciples ; 
three times and in three places was He tempt- 
ed ; and three times did He here pray, and 
willed His Disciples to pray, that they might 
not enter into temptation. O, what devo- 
tion was here ! His last supper being ended. 
He goeth forth, accompanied with His Disci- 
ples and speaks unto them, as a loving father 
upon his death-bed, when he hath not much 
to say to his children, gives precepts which 
they should remember when he is gone from 
them, of which precepts this was not the least, 
" Watch and pray, that you enter not into 
temptation'." This precept doth commend 
unto us the use of fervent prayer; "If thou 
shalt suffer," saith Bonaventure, " whatsoever 
adversities in the life of man, be thou a man of 
prayer ; if thou wilt mortify thine own will and 
evil lusts, be thou a man of prayer ; if thou 
wilt know the wiliness and subtleties of the 
devil, be thou a man of prayer. If thou wilt 
obtain force and strength to overcome his 
1 temptations, be thou a man of prayer. If thou 

z Matt. xzvi. 41. 


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wilt live merely in the service of God, be thou 
a man of prayer." By which we may see the 
benefit, yea, the great benefit of prayer and 
fervent supplication. 

V, But to return to our Saviour's praying 
at this time, Peter, James, and John go with 
Him a; for those to whom He had before 
showed the glory of His transfiguration, to 
them would He now show the humility of 
His Passion, that as they had seen glorious 
things, so now should they see humble things : 
to these He saith, " My soul is sorrowful unto 
death." Unto may be taken indefinitely ; and 
so, " My soul is sorrowful unto the death ;" 
that is, until a satisfaction for the sins of the 
world be made by death ; or unto may be 
taken inclusively, and so, " My soul is sorrow- 
ful unto the death," that is, until the scandal 
of My death be turned again to the life of 
faith, " My soul is sorrowful." Here Anselm 
crieth out, " How cometh it to pass, O my 
God, that Thou, taking upon Thee the nature 

a Matt. xvii. i. 


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of man, shouldest begin to forget Thou art 

VI. Now we are to consider that our Sa- 
viour Christ assumed this fear and sorrowful- 
ness for many causes ; first, to prove the truth 
of His humanity, for it is natural unto man to 
fear death, and of this natural sorrow was our 
Lord sorrowful ; yet so do we understand Him 
to be sorrowful and to fear, not with that fear 
and sorrow which ordinarily drowneth reason, 
and causeth man to overshoot himself, as 
Peter, for fear of death, denied his Master h ; 
this manner of fear was far from Christ, for 
He came for this intent to suffer, and reproved 
Peter c when He dissuaded Him from going to 
Jerusalem, and suffering there. 

VII. There is a kind of stepping back, na- 
turally incident unto all, which at this time 
appeared in Christ, as other human actions 
did. His eating. His sleeping. His hunger, and 
the like, all which were in Christ, sin only 
excepted, properly as in man. Now this 
sorrow and fear was otherwise in Christ than 

I 1 b Mark xiv. 68. c Mark viii. 33". 

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in us. In us for the most part the passion of 
fear doth go before the rule of the will and the 
judgment of reason, but in Christ it did follow 
after, for both the will and the judgment of 
reason went before ; for when He hungered 
and thirsted, He did it willingly, and of judg- 
ment ; He feared willingly, He sorrowed will- 
ingly, and of judgment. By this then, there 
is nothing to be considered in Christ as con- 
strained, but all is to be believed as voluntary, 
and therefore fear and sorrow, as they were 
natural, so were they voluntary and rational. 
Wherefore the orginal of the text saith, rjp^a- 
TO Xweladai, " He began to fear, He began to 
be sorrowful''," and not, " He was fearful." 
Fear and sorrow began in the part sensitive, 
but came not to the mind or understanding ; 
for when the Evangehsts say, " His soul began 
to be sorrowful," there the soul is taken for 
the part sensitive, in which are passions. And 
here we may consider, that Christ could not 
die by nature, as Adam could not die until he 
had committed sin ; " for the reward of sin," 

d Matt. xxvi. 37. 

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saith the Apostle, "was death;" but as He 
took upon Him human nature, so did He also, 
without our infirmities, suffer that voluntarily 
which was incident to our nature, yea, to our 

Vni. A troubled passion ariseth in the 
mind, either besides the decree of reason, or in 
opposite manner against the decree of reason. 
The former of these two is sometimes incident 
unto men, even the best amongst men ; the 
second to the imperfect only. A perfection 
far surmounting both was in Christ, for in 
Him sense was subject unto reason, reason 
unto will, the will to the understanding, the 
understanding to God. 

IX. Christ was sorrowful, saith St. Jerome*", 
not for any fear of death, which nature refuseth, 
but for the scandal of His Disciples, the infi- 
dehty of Judas, the ruin of the Jews ; and 
thus it is not dissonant from truth, saith St. 
Ambrose*, if He were heavy in soul for His 
persecutors. We see, according to the judg- 
ment of the ancient Fathers, how far our 

e In Matt. cap. 26. f In Luc. cap. 10. ( 

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Saviour's fear was from distrustful thoughts 
or weaker passions, which to think to be in 
Him were most impious ; but in these suffer- 
ings being rightly considered, we see a most 
admirable conveniency in all, without fancying 
of unlearned and irreligious conceits concern- 
ing a desertion of God. 

X. Pause here a httle, O Christian soul! 
and devoutly call to mind the great wonders 
of our Lord : behold. He hath often prayed 
for thee, but now He prayeth for Himself: O, 
marvellous humility, for being Almighty, co- 
eternal, coequal with God, He would notwith- 
standing for the time suspend His Divinity 
and be subject to fear ! 

XI. To come to the matter of instruction, 
for that is also behoveful, in this sorrowing 
of our Saviour, we learn these things. First, 
to keep down, by the rule of reason, sorrows 
and passions that arise in us, to restrain them 
and keep them in obedience unto the will. 
Secondly, not to despair if sorrow and fear at 
any time surprise us, even unto death. Thirdly, 
to be sorrowful for the state of others, after 

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Christ's example. Fourthly, amidst all our 
sorrows to repair only unto God, and commend 
ourselves unto Him, as Christ did, by prayer, 
and thus uniting our sorrows with His, Who 
in our sorrows sorrowed with us, we shall the 
better bear them. 

XII. This done, Christ departed a stone's 
cast from them, and there prayed, " Father, if 
it be possible, remove this cup&." He saith, 
" Abba, Father," and we too, saith the Apo- 
stle, say, " Abba, Father," twice Father, both 
according to the Hebrew and Greek, shewing 
that God is now Father of Jew and Gentile. 
He saith, " if it be possible," referring the 
grant of His petition to the will of God ; if it 
may stand with the same will and not other- 
wise. He prayeth for the removing of that 
cup, yet so that looking to obedience. He 
goeth forward towards His suffering and saith, 
" Thy will be fulfilled^." What of human 
desire He before mentioned. He now in action 
proceedeth to relinquish, as if He would say, 
Let not that be done which I have spoken 

g Matt. xxvi. 39. h Matt. xxvi. 42. 

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according to human affection, but let that be 
done for which I was sent into the world, and 
now am willing to suffer. That which He 
required as man, to wit, the removing of the 
cup. He now leaveth, as resolving wholly to 
proceed with the will of God. But was the 
will of Christ any way differing from the will 
of His Father ? No, verily, for He saith, " I 
I seek not My own will, but the will of Him 
I that sent Mei;" and this manner of con- 
ditional prayer should be remembered of us in 
praying, not our wills, but, Lord, Thine be 

Xni. He prayeth the third time the same 
thing, shewing that He goeth to pray, and 
to pray the self-same thing too ; not of for- 
getfulness, but of very fervency. Whereby 
we may observe, that to pray and pray again 
is a part of high devotions. The dove went 
forth of the ark the first time, and returned 
sorrowful as she went out, still the waters 
were up ; she goeth forth the second time, 
! then the flood is abated, and she brings a 

■ i John V. 30. 

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branch of olive, a sign of quiet and peace '^. 
First, a soirowful prayer goeth forth, still 
the waters of adversity are up ; the prayer 
goeth forth again, behold the waters are fallen ; 
prayer brings a crop of olive, joy and tran- 
quiUity of mind. 

XIV. In the time of Christ's praying, there 
appeared unto Him an Angel from Heaven 
strengthening Him', at the appointment of His 
heavenly Father. And here observe we three 
things : first, that our Saviour prayeth long 
before He received an answer, to show we 
must not by and by give over ; secondly, that 
the greater His agony was, the longer His 
prayer was, to show that in greatest agonies 
we should continue long in prayer; thirdly, 
in that the Angels came and strengthened Him, 
to signify that if we continue with constancy, 
the Lord will send us strength by His Angels. 
In that the drops of blood came down, it 
showed the greatness of our Saviour's conflict, 
wherein He seemed both to do and* to suffer. 
His blood was true blood, according to His 

k Gen. nii. 8. ii. 1 Luke xxii. 43. 

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natural existence, but yet miraculous and su- 
pernatural, if we respect the manner ; for it is 
above nature to pour out together water and 
blood, which Christ did both alive and dead. 

XV. Behold again, O Christian soul ! thy 
Redeemer and Saviour cast into a bloody sweat 
for thy sins ; yea, moved He is to shed for 
thee tears of blood. For when by virtue of 
His Godhead He saw before Him all the pains 
and torments which were to be inflicted upon 
Him, His Manhood began for to fear and fall 
into a most violent bloody sweat. In this it 
is manifest how bitter His Passion was. Whose 
only thought so much changed nature. Of 
this our Saviour's sweating may be gathered 
these several observations : first, the greatness 
of His agony ; secondly, that this agony caused 
sweat when it was a cold night ; thirdly, this 
sweat falUng upon the earth, we may gather 
that the earth, or men inhabiting the earth, 
have benefit thereby. 

XVI. ]^ow was presented before the eyes 
of the Son of God, on the one side, God's just 
judgment and wrath towards man yet un. 

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appeased ; on the other side, death and hell 
as yet not vanquished. Himself left as it were 
alone to enter the conflict, putting forth His 
hand to receive the cup, and yet He beginneth 
to pull it in again, but after a little while goeth 
forward with full resolution to the work well 
begun, which He brought to a most happy 

XVn. Let the devout man learn, in aU the 
pressure of adversity, to set before him Christ's 
agony in the garden ; be it that doubtful ob- 
jects between fear and sorrow do much ob- 
scure our natural dehghts, here have we for 
times of trouble a precedent to follow; but 
chiefly in the agony of death, when sick men 
are panting and labouring for life, they are 
said then especially to endure an agony, for 
then beginneth a conflict indeed ; nature draw- 
ing one way, and obedience to the will of God 
another; the spirit goeth forward, and the 
flesh draweth backward ; besides many thoughts 
occur about leaving the world, and going to 
answer for our time here spent, with many 
other things seldom before thought upon. 

,) . — 6 

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Our Saviour was in an agony when death 
approached ; whence Gregory saith, " Death 
approaching, an agony is present, and not 
without cause ; for then is the soul put in 
greatest fear, when after a Uttle while she 
finds that which never will be changed or 
altered." And therefore we do beseech the 
Lord of all comfort. Who was Himself in an 
agony, for to comfort us in all our agonies. 

XVIII. But how is it that the servants are 
joyful in their agonies, and the Lord of these 
servants is sorrowful in His .'' The Lord was 
sorrowful, because He bare the burden of our 
sins, the servants are often joyful in their 
agonies, because then " Christ is their right- 
eousness ;" so then by His agony we learn 
how to pray, yea, and to take comfort in our 


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That Christians may take comfort amidst the calamities 

of this life, by that of our Saviour; " Let not 

your hearts be troubled." 

" Give wine," Sciith Solomon, " to those 
that have grief of mindm." Christ seeing His 
Disciples to have grief of mind, for why, the 
Shepherd being taken away, the sheep will be 
scattered". He gives them the sweet wine of 
consolation in these words ; " Let not your 
hearts be troubled, you believe in God, believe 
in Me alsoo;" as if beheving in Me you 
believe in God, believing in God, you are to 
take comfort of heart. 

He that knew their troubled hearts ; partly 
in that He had said, one of them should betray 
Him, and partly in that He had told them 
He must shortly depart from them, began 
now tocomfort their hearts after this manner, 
" Let not your hearts be troubled ; you he- 
rn Prov. xxxi. 6. n Matt. xxvi. 31 o John xiv. i. 

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lieve in God, believe in Me also, and let not 
your hearts be troubled." 

Christ knowing that His own Apostles were 
left unto the injuries of the world, that they 
had undertaken a military profession, and were 
to fight under the red colours of His cross. 
He here comforts them against afflictions, not 
so much by taking away afflictions from them, 
that they have them not, as by strengthening 
them when they come, that they faint not; 
to the outward man He foretelleth a cross, 
but to the inward man a stay or fortress : a 
cross to the outward man, that it exult not ; 
comfort to the inward man, that it languish 
not, " Let not your hearts be troubled." 

H. In this of our Saviour, we see where- 
unto this His exhortation tends, not that they 
should not be troubled at all. for that is above 
human nature ; Himself, as we have heard, 
was troubled in His agony ; but the trouble 
here spoken of is that which hindereth reason, 
dismayeth the understanding, is opposite to 
peace and tranquillity of mind ; this is trouble 
of heart. When the soul is cast down by 

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distrust and heaviness ; to shake off all this, 
" Let not your hearts be troubled ; you believe 
in God, believe in ]\le also." When an earthly 
captain doth comfort his soldiers, the utter- 
most he can do is to strengthen them, as 
Judas Maccabseus did by exhortation P. Christ 
doth strengthen his soldiers, and also puts 
strength into them. 

III. A noble prince sometime of great de- 
votion and valour, seeing his army much dis- 
mayed, when they beheld the huge multitude 
of their enemies coming toward them, and 
perceiving by their countenances that their 
hearts began to fail them, ascending to an 
eminent place, he makes them a very hearty 
oration, which he drew into three heads. 
First, he shows their cause was just, and that 
God was wont to prosper just enterprises. 
Secondly, that their enemies were those whom 
his and their ancestors, who now bare arms 
under him, had often foiled. Thirdly, that being 
so few, if they prevailed against that huge 
multitude, the victory would be glorious ; how- 

p 2 Mace. XV. II. 

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soever, for himself, he would die in the battle 
or return in triumph. His oration was no 
sooner ended, but a voice was heard through- 
out all the army, every one crying, Forward, 
fonvard ! the event was, they happily pre- 

A multitude of crosses are ready to assail 
us in open field, which may cause our hearts 
to be troubled, but a most noble Champion 
we have, that assures us that our cause is just, 
that our enemies are those whom all God's 
servants have ever resisted. If we prevail, 
our conquest will be heavenly ; our Champion 
Himself will live and die in our defence ; why 
should our hearts be troubled ? Nay, we have 
won the day ; " You shall have troubles in 
the world, but be of good comfort, I have 
overcome the world 'i." Forward, forward, 
in the name of God, our enemies are foiled 
enemies, our battle is not so much to over- 
come, as to cleave unto Him who hath over- 
come in the assaults made against us ; we 
are rather seduced than vanquished in these 

q John xvi. 33. 

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assaults. Seducta/uit mulier, saith the Apostle, 
" The woman was seduced," not vicia fuit, 
" she was vanquished :" to shew that tempta- 
tions do rather seduce than conquer or over- 

But here ariseth a double question, the 
first, seeing we are delivered from our ene- 
mies, how is it that we have still enemies ? 
The second is St. Austin's, si alligatus est 
Satan, if Satan be bound, why doth he stiU 
molest God's children ? To the first question 
the answer is, we are delivered from our 
enemies*", that is, from the servitude of our 
enemies, sin, death, and Satan. To the second 
question the answer is, Satan is bound so as 
he cannot hurt us ; tempt he can, but unless 
we come within his bands, and consent, he 
cannot hurt us. That we should not like Job's 
wife, stumble at the adversities of this world, 
as at a rock of offence, and think ourselves the 
rather out of God's favour, we may perceive 
we have undertaken a condition of life subject 
to sufiering, it is a military profession. 

r Luke i. 74. 

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IV. Because Christ knew the hardness of 
suffering, therefore where He spake of suffer- 
ing with Him, there He spake also of sitting 
with Him in His kingdom, " You shall sit 
upon seats, judging the twelve tribes of Is- 
rael^." Like the physician, who is wont to 
mix sweet sirups with his bitter potions, that 
the patient may be the more willing to receive 
them : so our Saviour here comforteth His 
Apostles, not by promising to take all troubles 
from them, but when troubles come, to assist 
and aid them. " Simon, Simon, Satan hath 
desired to winnow you as wheat*," and so he 
may, he shall; but " Simon, I have prayed 
for thee." God, even the Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, comforteth »i us in all our tribu- 
lations ; the Apostle saith not, God sends us 
no tribulations, but He comforteth us in them. 

I Again, he saith not, God comforteth in some 
tribulations only, but in all our tribulations, 

I as blessed be God, is the Apostle's inference. 

I By faith, saith the same Apostle, the people 

8 Luke xxii, 39, 30. t Luke xxii. 31. 

j u 2 Cor. i. 3. 

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passed the Red sea^, and by faith we pass the 
Red sea of many tribulations of the world : 
also it was not Peter's body, but Peter's faith, 
saith St. Ambrose, that walked upon the wa- 
ters. That which Christ said unto some. He 
saith unto all : " Let not your hearts be 
troubled." The waters rage, but there is One 
mightier than they. " God is on my side," 
saith David, " I will not fear what man can 
do unto me." 

Men might have been encouraged by the 
example of Camillus, of Scipio, of Aristides, 
and others, which have been hated even when 
they had desen^ed well of the commonwealth, 
and Christian men might have for their encou- 
ragement the examples of Isaiah, Jeremiah, 
Micah, and other of the old Prophets suffering 
tribulation. A cloud of witnesses might be 
collected in this case, to shew how they must 
look for troubles in the world, but our Saviour 
proposeth unto us His own case only as a lead- 
ing case for all posterity, " If the world hate you, 
you know that it hated Me before it hated you." 

V Heb, xi. 29. 


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Marvel not at this, saith St. John, " if the 
world hate you v." " There be three things," 
saith Thomas Aquinas"', " which we are wont 
to marvel at ; the first, when any thing is 
great ; the second, when it is new ; the third, 
when it is seldom and rare." Now that the 
world, that is to say, the lovers of the world, 
do not affect the children of God, it is no 
great thing ; the physician thinks it no great 
matter if the lunatic man whom he binds, do 
strike or kick him ; alas ! he is frenzy, and 
knows not what he doth. Secondly, it is no 
new thing to have trouble in the world ; we 
find it so in Abel and Isaac, and all from the 
beginning. Thirdly, it is no rare thing, for 
there is nothing more common, and therefore 
our hearts should not be troubled, that is to 
say, overmuch troubled. 

V. The world and the tempter both boast 
of giving pleasures unto carnal men, but come 
to the performance, and these pleasures are 
very torments ; Christ promiseth tribulation 
in the world, but come to the inward man, 

V John XV. i8. w Tho. Aquin. in i Epist. John, cap. iii. 

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and there we find a world of joy. The root 
of the tree is bitter, but the fruit is pleasant ; 
Christ promiseth rest ; you shall have rest, 
but it is rest unto your souls ; not worldly 
rest. His burden then it is by love, and we 
are made strong by grace : a burden, this is 
wont to unburden sinners. He that sets us 
in this journey knows what is fittest for pas- 
sengers, and therefore we may endure with 
comfort these outward adversities when they 
come : we must not cast away the nut, for 
the bitterness of the rind. Happy leprosy 
was it that made Naaman worship the God 
of Israel" in his heart. The Prophet David 
saith, it is good for him to have been in 
trouble : if thou wert not troubled, perhaps 
thou wouldest not devoutly have called upon 
God, thou wouldest not have worshipped God, 
thou wouldest not have known God. The 
sharp storms of the winter they make the 
trees bare, for a time they stand as dead, yet 
there remains still life in the root. In like 
manner, aiflictions of the world make the 

X 2 Kings V. 17. 

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members of Christ seem desolate, and the 
stormy winds of persecution scatter abroad 
the leaves of worldly prosperity, yet there is 
life in the root, there is faith and joy in the 
heart. It is otherwise with the wicked, and 
the joy of worldlings ; they think felicity to 
consist in abundance of riches, in pleasures, in 
glory, and such like ; all this is but outward 
and momentary, like a little sunshine in win- 
ter, for one fair day it hath oftentimes ten 
foul, and such a number of troubles as almost 
the former pleasures are dashed and vanish 
to nothing. When men see storms in winter 
they do not much wonder at it, and why ? 
winter is a time of storms ; so in this Ufe we 
should not think much to have tribulations at 
a time of tribulation. 

VI. The godly have indeed often outward 
adversities, but such joys within, as if all ad- 
versities were nothing, and this principally 
Cometh to pass by Christ His means ; for 
whatsoever He touched, He did sanctify it, 
and therefore hunger, thirst, persecution, they 
are not now so grievous, but work all for the 


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good of the faithful. The waters of IVIarah 
which were so bitter that none could drink 
themv, Moses but casting in the wood that 
God appointed him, they became sweet; the 
crosses of the world were grievous until Christ 
His cross was put in amongst them, now their 
taste is altered. A strange sight was it in 
times of persecution, to see a few lambs to 
overcome a multitude of wolves by no other 
weapons than patience and faith, " and to re- 
joice," as Tertullian saith^, "in the midst of 
torments." Wonderful it is to hear how St. 
Paul, endued with grace from Christ, doth 
even challenge and provoke tribulation and 
anguish and hunger ; yea, life and death, 
as if he would speak like a man of courage to 
all the adversities of the world, " Shall you 
all separate me from the love of Christ a?" 
No, you shall not ; thereby teaching us to be 
so constant, that nothing should separate us 
from the love of Christ. 

VII. Another reason which our Saviour 

y Exod. XV. 23, aj. I Tertul. ad Scap. 

a Rom. viii, 39. 

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useth to comfort His Disciples against tribu- j 

lations is, " I go to prepare a place for you^," j 

and therefore be of good hope. Moses, to ! 

stir up the people in times of their distress, '■ 

speaks unto them after this manner : " The ! 
land you go to possess is not as Egypt'', but 

a champaign country, and goodly to enjoy, : 

which the Lord visiteth with the early and . 

latter rain." We have a promise of a better ; 

land than ever Moses promised : " In My | 

Father's house are many mansions^," The j 

journey was long and wearisome for Jacob, j 
a weak and feeble person as he was, yet by 
reason of inward joy he had conceived in his 
heart, he well endured it^. " Be it," saith 

St. Austin g, " that we have not temporal deli- j 

verance from troubles, this sheweth that we ; 

do not embrace the Christian religion for the '. 

commodities of this present world, but for the j 

joys of a life to come, which will make amends j 

for all." The benefit of a calm is best welcome j 

after a storm ; liberty is wont to be most plea- j 

c John xiv. 3. d Deut. xi. 10. e John xiv. 3. 1 

I f Gen. xlvi. i. g Aug. lit. cap. 22. de Civitate Dei. ' 

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sant after a time of bondage : " You shall 
sorrow," saith our Saviour, " but your sorrow 
shall be turned into joy^^," your sorrow, not 
every one's sorrow, but your's, who have 
abidden with Me in My temptations, there- 
fore I appoint unto you a kingdom'. 

When the Prophet David speaks of the sor- 
rows of this world, he calleth them waters. 
" Save me, O God, for the waters are entered 
even to my soul'^." In another place he goeth 
further, saying, " The floods are risen, O Lord, 
the floods have hft up their voice, the floods 
hft up their waves : the waves of the sea are 
mighty, and rage horribly, but yet the Lord 
that dwelleth on high is mightier 1." St. Peter 
saith, " Lord, bid me come unto Thee on the 
water""." And surely unto trouble, as unto 
the raging waters, God saith, " Hither shalt 
thou come, and thou shalt come no further «." 
The conclusion is, " Let not our hearts be 
troubled : ye believe in God," &c. 

h John xvi. 20. i Luke xxii. 28, 29. k Psalm Ixix. i. 
1 Psalm xciii. 4, 5. m Matt. xiv. 28. n Job xxxviii. 11. 

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What we learn by that of our Saviour exhorting all 

that would follow Him, to deny themselves, 

and take up their cross daily. 

Being forewarned, and armed against the 
trials of the world before they come, it re- 
maineth that we be ready to undergo them 
when they come. Christ shews us plainly 
what we must look for if we will be His dis- 
ciples when He giveth out in open proclama- 
tion, " Whosoever will follow Me, let him 
deny himself"." In the text of the Evangelist, 
our Saviour having before spoken of His own 
suffering. He by and by speaks of their suffer- 
ing who would follow Him : first, that they 
should not think that His suffering did abso- 
lutely exempt them from suffering all crosses 
of the world : no, for I have taken up My 
cross, and you must take up yours. Secondly, 
He sheweth Himself as a careful governor in 
the ship, who in a calm is wont to instruct 

o Mark viii. 34. 

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the mariners against the tempest likely to fol- 
low ; and this He doth as it were in familiar 
manner, by shewing what Himself had done, 
and then what His disciples should do ; first, 
what He would suffer, and then what they 
should suffer. 

As if He should have said. What, Peter! 
and should I not go to Jerusalem for fear of 
suffering ? Yes, it is not only My cause but 
thine, and the case of you all who are, or 
desire sincerely and seriously to be My disci- 
ples, " Whosoever will follow Me let him deny 
himself, and take up his cross daily, and 
follow Me." 

II. Here Christ speaketh generally unto all, 
of what estate and condition soever, high and 
low, rich and poor, " whosoever." When He 
spake of some special Mysteries, then turning 
Him to His Apostles, He saith, " To you it is 
given to know the Mysteries of the kingdom 
of God :" but speaking of the way to follow 
Him unto His kingdom. He speaketh uni- 
versally unto all, " Whosoever." It is for 
all to know, " Whosoever." Again, as He 

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speaketh universally, so doth He speak lov- 
ingly ; " Whosoever will," not as forcing 
any, but lovingly inducing all, leaving His 
own followers to their own willingness. " Who- 
soever will," by which He doth more effectu- 
ally draw them, than if he had used all the 
threatenings in the world. 

The stayed men and gray heads in Israel 
said unto Rehoboam, " If thou speak kind 
words to this people, this people will be thy 
servants'! ;" Christ speaks kind words unto us 
all, and deals most bountifully with man, ac- 
cording to the dignity of His person. He 
which having laid up rich treasures to bestow 
amongst his friends, if he wiU or command the 
public crier to say, This and this treasure is 
ready to be bestowed by a bountiful lord, may 
it please you now to come and receive it ? 
doth he not now more persuade, than if he 
should by a sharp edict pull and draw men to 
receive this treasure against their wills ? 

III. Again, he which hath in his household 
two sorts of servants, the one free-born and 

q I Kings xii. 7. 

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of his alliance, the other slaves and bondmen, 
when he requireth any service of the former, 
he speaks unto them mildly, according to their 
ingenuous disposition, but the other he com- 
mands absolutely as common servants. We are 
as of the chiefer sort of Christ His family, if 
not ha\-ing freewill, yet wUl freed by grace ; 
nay, we are of His own alliance, and therefore 
when He speaks unto us. He speaks lovingly 
as unto them that love Him, " whosoever 
will:" but unto His other creatures, as the 
heavens, the earth, the sun, the moon, He 
doth not require but command them ; so in 
the time of Joshua He commanded the Sun to 
stand still r ; in the time of Elias He com- 
manded the heavens to be shut^ : when some 
rebelled against Moses, He commanded the 
earth to open and swallow them* : but with 
man, to win his heart. He deals most gently, 
and calls after a mild manner, " Whosoever 
will." The antecedent showeth the manner of 
calUng, the consequent containeth the duty of 
him that is called, " Let him deny himself, 

r Josh. X. 13. 8 I Kings xvii. i. t Numb. xvi. 30. 

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and take up his cross daily, and follow Me." 
The antecedent shows God's volo, I will ; the 
consequent ought to have our volumus, we 
will. When Christ's will is seen in calling 
us, our will should not be defective in follow- 
ing Him. 

IV. In this consequent we see that some- 
what is required at our hands, if we will be 
Christ's followers, to wit, the denying of our- 
selves, and the taking up of our cross daily ; 
and who would not that loves his own wel- 
fare, but follow Christ ? 

The three children followed God, and how ? 
By going out of their place ? The text saith, 
" They followed God in their hearts^ii." Re- 
bekah was said to go and inquire of the Lord ; 
whither went she ? From the place where He 
was not, to the place where He was ? No : 
" I the Lord fill Heaven and earth ''^ :" she 
went not from place to place ; it is not re- 
quired of us so to do in following of Christ ; 
but she went from life to life, from manners 
to manners, from good to better, from grace 

u Sougof the Three Children, 1 8. v Jer. xxiii, 34. 

o o 

o o 


to grace : and this is to follow Him. " Di- 
versely," saith St. Austin, " did our Saviour 
deal with three sorts of men concerning their 
following Him : one offers himself, and is re- 
fused, Master, I wiU follow Thee ; another, 
that saith nothing, is called, sequere Me, Follow 
Me : a third deferred when he was called, and 
is blamed." The first respected his profit ; for 
all his profession, his intention was profit ; the 
second did mind natural affection ; the third 
was much like the first, to whom Christ saith, 
" The foxes have holes, the birds of the air 
have nests ; but the Son of Man hath not 
where to lay His head^^." " What is that," 
saith St. Austin'' ? " crafty imaginations, am- 
bitious desires, have room in such men's 
hearts, but the love of Christ hath no room 
at all in them." 

In the world suit is made to be followers of 
men that have countenance above others ; but 
to be one of Christ's followers in sincerity and 
truth, which is far better, yet for this few 

w Luke ix. i'j. J9.6r. Aug. de Verb. Ser. 7. 
X De Verbis Dom, 

. — o 

o- o 


care little at all. The poor followers of Him 
in humility, denying themselves, taking up 
their cross, shall one day have more coun- 
tenance than all this world's pomp is able to 
afford. Small suit is made for this, nay, 
Christ Himself becomes a suitor to us, when 
He calleth, "Whosoever will." The people 
said to Joshua, " The Lord is our God, and 
we will serve Him :" so may we say, Christ is 
our Redeemer, and we will follow Him. 

V. Now what is it that is to be done by 
him that wiU follow Christ? Marry two 
things : the first, let him deny himself ; the 
second, let him take up his cross daily. For 
the first, he that will foUow Christ must love 
Christ ; for He which requireth a cheerful 
giver requireth a cheerful follower : But how 
must he love Christ, as himself? yea, more 
than himself, for he must even deny himself. 
And how must a man deny himself? Sure, as 
Abraham did in forsaking his father's house ; 
that is, Adam's natural desires, that seem plea- 
sant unto him ; so saith the Prophet, " For- 
get thy father's house, then shall the King 

o c 

o o 


have pleasure in theeY." Adam chose rather 
to do his own will than the will of God ; if we 
deny ourselves, we conform our wills to the 
will of God. 

" We best see," saith St. Chrysostom, 
" what it is to deny ourselves 2, when we be- 
hold what men are wont to do in denying 
others : when any casteth oflF an imfaithful 
companion and graceless body, he neither re- 
joiceth at his prosperity nor is grieved at his 
adversity ; he cares not what becomes of him. 
The hke is done in denying of ourselves, that 
is, our sensual desires, to grow out of love and 
liking of them, and clean reject them. 

To deny our goods, our friends, yea, our 
very pleasures, is very much : and yet to fol- 
low Christ we must go a step further, that is, 
to wit, we must deny ourselves ; it is not only 
required that we deny that which is ours, but 
even that we deny ourselves also : but how 
come we to deny ourselves ? First of all, we 
deny ourselves when we yield obedience in all 
things unto God, which obedience is better 

y Psalm xlv. lo , n. z Chrys. in Horn. Watt. xvi. 24. 

o o 

o o 


than sacrifice a; " for in obedience," saith St. 
Gregory, " our own will is sacrificed :" in these 
external oblations the flesh of some other 
creature is ofifered. In the old Law they had 
many kinds of sacrifices, which were killed 
and oflfered : now, saith Origen'', "this manner 
is altered ; instead of a ram we kill our ireful 
passions ; instead of a goat our unclean affec- 
tions ; instead of flying fowls our idle thoughts 
and wandering cogitations." All these must 
we kill in denying ourselves, yea thus we kiU 
them that would kill us, and sure the faithful 
by suppressing the motions of sin make Mar- 
tyrs of themselves : this is not one day's work, 
or children's play, but it is a care of all our 
life to deny ourselves. 

Secondly, we deny ourselves when we resist 
the provocations of sin oflfered, as Joseph did 
when he withstood the temptations of his 
master's wife^; assuredly of him it may well 
be said, that it was as great a miracle to see 
him chaste, in that present provocation of his 
mistress, as it was to see the three children 

a I Sam. xv. 32. b In Levit. c Gen, xxxiz. 8, 9. 

o o 

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walk without hurt amongst the fiery flames d; 
so excellent a thing it is, so acceptable unto 
God, to deny ourselves when provocations of 
sin are offered. 

Thirdly, we deny ourselves when we put up 
with wrongs and injuries of the world, saying 
with Stephen, " Lord, forgive them, and lay 
not this sin to their charge e." 

Fourthly, we deny ourselves when we cross 
our own wills and relinquish our natural de- 
sires, and when we begin to be centurions 
over our own affections, and say to this or 
that. Go, or Come, referring ourselves to the 
will of God, that so we may not be said so 
much to live, as Christ by grace may be said 
to live in us^. 

Last of all, we deny ourselves when we 
cease to sacrifice unto the net, or attribute 
any thing to our own actions, much less to 
our own merits, and therefore least of all in 
the high Mystery of our justification, every one 
is to say with the Apostle, " By the grace 
of God, I am that I am ;" and again, " Not 

d Dan. iii. aj, e Act8 vii. 60. f Gal. ii. so. 

o o 

o c 


I, but the grace of God in meg." And this 
is the sum of denying ourselves, being the first 
degree in following of Christ, whosoever will 
be His follower, let him deny himself. 

The second clause of the condition is, (for 
we are His disciples upon these and these 
conditions,) the second clause I say is, and 
take up His cross daily ; " let him deny him- 
self," is the first airapv-qa-da-Go), to deny alto- 
gether for good and all, and then follows, 
let him take up his cross. " Let him deny 
himself," by declining from evil, " and take up 
his cross," by sufi'ering evil, " and follow Me," 
by conforming himself unto Me and My laws 
prescribed him. " Let him deny himself," by 
renouncing his own will; " take up his own 
cross," by bearing patiently lesser or greater 
persecutions ; " and follow Me," by walking 
in My ways. 

And let him take up his cross ; it is not 
said, and carry his cross ; but let him take 
it up ; to signify a voluntary and veiling suf- 
fering, because evil men may have crosses, 

g I Cor. XV. 10. 

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but they bear them, and do not take them up ; 
they bear them grudgingly and impatiently, 
not willingly and thankfully ; as Jeremiah said, 
" This is my sorrow, and I will bear it," so 
ought they to say. 

The cross is said to be daily, because we can 
never live without crosses, and therefore must 
daily prepare to suffer, or at leastwise have a 
mind ready to suffer. It was not without 
cause our Saviour pronounced a blessing to 
those that suffer persecution, because to the 
judgment of the world they are subject to a 
curse. Daily, for there is none lives, or can 
live, but he shall find, either from himself or 
others, a cross to take up. The cross of 
humble men is injury ; the cross of religious 
men is fasting and watching ; the cross of 
rich men is the contempt of the world ; of the 
poor, want and scarcity ; so every one hath 
his cross. 

In this we see that our Saviour, in teUing 
us we .must take up our cross, doth not deal 
after the manner of worldly rulers, who to 
have troops and trains follow them, are wont 

)— — -o 

o c 


to tell of pleasures and profits, and such like ; 
Christ speaks of taking up a cross, of suffer- 
ing, of denying oneself ; " If any will follow 
Me, let him take up his cross." One would 
think that this persuading was a kind of dis- 
suading, and a mean rather to make most 
men sooner forsake Him than follow Him. 
And yet such was the power of His calling, 
so great was the hope of immortality, that 
this calling of Christ filled the world full of 
Christians. Notwithstanding these cold re- 
wards, the manifold crosses they were to en- 
dure, yet they left all their hope that the 
world might promise, and followed Him by 
afflictions. That same, " and Follow Me," 
doth sweeten the most bitter and sharpest 
adversities of all : to follow Christ, what else 
is it but the greatest felicity that can happen 
unto man ? \ 

But here we see we must expect a cross, as 
our Saviour foreshows us, and take no oflfence 
thereat when it cometh. We see Christ suf- 
fered His own Apostles to hunger, to be in 
danger of tempests, to go forth in the world 

6 — ^c 

D— — O 


amongst many enemies. Let it not grieve 
us to hear the gate is strait and the way 
narrow, because the end thereof leadeth unto 
life. The crosses of the world are many, as 
we see in Abraham, who was fain to forsake 
his own country! and live in fear among 
strangers ; in Sampson, who was taken of his 
enemies and scornfuUy handled J ; in Zedekiah, 
who in his old age had his eyes pulled out'', 
and was to fain to end his days in sorrow. 

Heathen men make mention of Polycrates, of 
Samos, and of Cambyses, who after much glory 
suffered sorrowful crosses : but for the faith- 
ful let not the world's crosses dismay them. 
The natural sun is profitable unto us not only 
in summer when it ripeneth our fruits, and is 
nearer unto us, but in winter also, when we 
sow our seeds, and the heat thereof is furthest 
off ; so is it with the Sun of Righteousness. 
Unto Tobit the bitter gall opened the eyes 
of his body, but unto Nebuchadnezzar the 
bitterness of affliction opened the eyes of his 
soul. For one Jonathan whose eyes were 

I Gen. xil. I. j Judg. xvi. ji. k a Kings xxv. 7. 


O -— 


opened by honey, there are many Tobits whose 
eyes are opened by gall. 

The crosses of this world they are unpleas- 
ing to human palates, yet they are often 
medicinable : the engine is laid to the bul- 
wark, but the fortress is not won : the tree 
is beaten with storms, but the root is sure : 
afflictions assay the outward man, faith within 
remains safe. In all these Christ sends 
first the oil of gladness in the state of grace, 
then a full deliverance in the state of glory : 
first, a reficiam is given to the languishing 
soul, then a satiabere, when it shall see God in 
glory ; when the lamb shall be no more in 
danger of the wolf, nor the corn of winds and 
storms. The people of God did first fetch 
many sighs in Egvpt, but after, they sung 
many more psalms^ upon their deliverance. 

1 Exod. xr. I, 


_ -— o 



That Christian men ought to live in all orderly and 
dutiful obedience to princes and governor*. 

As in the art of writing he cannot attain 
that faculty that doth not carefully look upon 
the example set before him, so fareth it in this 
world, that unless we continually do cast our 
eyes on Him, who passed His time here in 
such orderly manner, that He grew in favour 
with God and man, we cannot keep that 
order for obedience to government which we 
ought to keep. 

Heathen men can tell us that the society 
of man doth consist in ruling and obeying. 
The saying of the Grecian is true, rd^is fJLTjrfjp 
T&v ovTcov ((TTi, Koi d<T(f)akeia, " order is the 
mother and preserver of things." Where 
none doth guide others, what order can be 
looked for? Where order is not had, con- 
fusion will follow, and the success of confusion 
is plain ruin. Where men shake off obedi- 



o — c 


ence and live as they list, what peace can be 
preserved? Where peace is not, what state either 
in Church or commonwealth can long stand ? 
Where rulers are not, some run headlong, they 
well know not whither, in the bent of their 
own wills ; others are waving up and down in 
opinions, all are as a body out of course, and 
subject to a dissolution: on the contrary, 
where governors ordain a law and all hearken 
imto the law, as concerning every man in 
particular, there is obedience, there is concord, 
there is continuance in well doing. 

II. Now above all other, those who live 
under the law of laws, to wit, the law of grace, 
for them to show all dutiful obedience to rulers 
and governors placed over them by God, what 
more seemly, more Christian ? Branches of 
one vine, stones of one building, fellows in one 
family, children of one Father, members of one 
Head, nay, heirs of one kingdom, what more 
beseeming then amongst these people to obey 
rulers, and rulers to obey God ? 

When Moses is praying, Joshua leading, 
Israel obeying, God blessing and prospering 

o ^C- 

3 . O 


all'", " O happy are the people that are in 
such a case!" The water, saith St. Cyprian 'i, 
that is separated from the fountaift drieth: 
the bough that is cut from the tree withereth : 
the light that is removed from the sun vanish- 
eth. The people all say, he that will not obey 
Joshua let him dieo. Christian religion, as it 
doth bind men in duty and devotion to God, 
so doth it also contain them within the lists 
and limits of duty and obedience towards man, 
who doth rule for God, knowing that " the 
powers that are, are ordained of God P." 

The only example of our Saviour Christ's 
obedience doth overthrow at one touch the 
lofty and Babylonical building of stubborn 
spirits, who refuse conformity and obedience 
to government amongst men. At His very 
birth obedience was shewed, when the blessed 
Virgin came to Bethlehem to be taxed q: His 
Circumcision was His obedience to the Law : 
His presentation in the Temple was the same : 
His paying tribute, and exhorting others to do 


m Exod. xvii. la — 14 n Cypr. de uni. 

oJos. i.i8. p Rom. xiii. I. i Pet. ii. 13. qLiikeli. J, 


o c 


the like, shewed how much He allowed and 
established civil obedience to superiors and 
governors in giving every one his due. 

The blessed Apostles Peter and Paul exhort 
hereunto ; the one willing us to obey for 
God's sake ; the other for conscience sake. 
The practice of the primitive Church, not only 
in laying down their lives by obedience when 
rulers were tyrants, but when the Church had 
the countenance of authority under those good 
emperors, Constantine, Jovinian, Theodosius, 
Valentian, and others, sheweth how dutifully 
and orderly Christians lived for obedience 
above all nations of the world. Eleutherius' 
commendeth Lucius, a king of this land, for 
his orderly governing the people according to 
the laws of God ; and St. Ambrose ^ praiseth 
Valentinian for the same. 

III. Now where is the opinion of those 
men who thought themselves freed from obe- 
dience by a vain surmise of Christian liberty ? 
Surely it is so slender as almost it is not worth 

rEpist. Eleuth. citatur inter leges Ed. I. 
8 Ambros. in Orat. Fun. 

6 c 

> o 


the refuting*. The misunderstanding of some 
Scriptures, which they have hammered in the 
forge of their weak brains, has caused them 
to rove and range into humours, for so are 
they wont to be stricken with a spirit of gid- 
diness, that would be singular, and above all 

" Princes of the nations bear rule ; amongst 

you it shall not be so^i." What a far fetched 

consequent is this, and a silly reasoning ? The 

Apostles must not have a tyrannical authority 

one over another, as Nero, Caligula, and such 

tyrants had ; therefore Christian people should 

Uve in obedience to superiors. We are freed 

from the Law, therefore called to such and 

such Christian liberty; but subjection taketh 

away liberty. St. Peter tells us that ignorant 

I men pervert Scripture v: the answer is plain, 

I Christian liberty freeth us from the bondage 

of the Law and the servitude of sin, but most 

' fitly agreeth with obedience to rulers, and in 

\ rulers to God Himself, Who saith, " By Me 

t Sleyd. in Cora, de Anabapt. u Luke xxii. a^, a6. 

V a Pet. iii. i6. 


o ( 


kings reign." The Apostle telleth us in the 
latter days, "Men shall be lovers of them- 
selves, disobedient, heady, high-minded, hav- 
ing a show of godliness; and from such," 
saith he, " turn away"'." St. Jude also saith, 
" These are murmurers and complainers, walk- 
ing after their own lusts : but edify your- 
selves," saith he, "in your most holy faith*." 
" God standeth in the congregation of 
princesY," saith David ; and therefore the first 
precept is, " Fear God :" the second is, " Ho- 
nour the king :" as if the Apostle St. Peter 
would say, both go together. To shew that 
we must homage our heart to our heavenly 
Father, our obedience to our eai'thly governor. 
It is so manifest as none cannot but know it ; 
yet seeing we live in that calamity of times, 
wherein men forget almost Whose creatures 
they are, we had need to be put in mind of this 
duty which we owe unto the King of kings. 
Faith saith. He is our Father ; obedience saith, 
ergo worship Him. Our allegiance towards 
Him is devotion and love, and nature hath 

w 2 Tim, Ui. i— J. x Jude i6. 20. y Ps Ixxxii. i. 

O -_ — (. 

7) O 


taught US to acknowledge as much. The light 
which is born with us doth shew us we have 
a duty to perform to the God of Heaven. The 
greatest emperors of this world are His sub- 
jects ; they have God over them, and men 
beholding what they do. Ask the poor and 
naked Indians, they will tell us that religion 
is no matter of policy, and that there is 
another magistrate than the magistrate of 
this world, to whom in nature they yield 

We are all God's creatures by existence. 
His clients by law. His children by adoption. 
His people by obedience. Thousand thousands 
serve Him in glory. Who knows as Verity, sits 
as Majesty, loves as Charity, and rules as 

V. Now, as we shew our obedience to God, 
so ought we to shew obedience also to those 
who have a subordinate power, and are set 
over us by God. It is not thee, said the Lord 
to Samuel, but it is Me whom this people 
have refused^ : it is not so much the ruler set 

X 1 Sam. viii. 7. 

p O 

o c 


over them by God, as God Himself, whom 
disobedient people refuse to obey. " He that 
resisteth the power," saith the Apostle, " re- 
sisteth the ordinance of God*," because " there 
is no power but of God." For the confirma- 
tion of this, we find that God hath punished, 
from time to time, murmurers and mutinous 
people, as by that of Dathan, Corah, and Abi- 
ram, whom He made an example for others a. 
And the Apostle St. Paul hath reference to 
this when he saith, " Neither murmur you as 
some of them murmured, and were destroyed 
of the destroyer. These came upon them for 
an example '\" O, saith the Wise Man, 
" wish no evil in thine heart unto the ruler of 
the people, for the birds of the air shall dis- 
close itc." Should we not honour them whom 
God hath honoured ? And love them whom i 
God hath loved ? Do we not sit doNvn under 
their government as under a shadow keeping 
us from heat and storms, when we are defended 
from invasion abroad and oppression at home ? 

I Rom. xiii. 2. a Numb. xvi. 32. bi C.r x jo, 11. 

c Kccles. X. 30 



D- O 


VI. When the queen of the South came 
from far to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and 
saw his princely order and magnificent state, 
what doth she but by and by begin to magnify 
the Author of Solomon's estate ? " O, blessed 
be the Lord thy God," saith she, "which 
loved thee, to set thee on the throne as king 
instead of the Lord thy God, to do equity 
and righteousness d !" As if she would have 
said, O Solomon, such a state, such a govern- 
ment, such a peace, such a time, such a 
temple, such wisdom, they are not of man, 
nor from man ; " Blessed be the Lord thv 
God, which loved thee, to set thee on the 
throne of Israel :" they are from God. 

VII. Affectionate were the hearts of the 
people to David their king, whom God had 
set over them. What, should Da\'id adventure 
himself? O no, better it were that many mis- 
carry, yea, ten thousand say the people, as it 
were with tears of thankfulness : God save our 
David, for if David go, the light of Israel is 
extinguished : they would not the least hurt 

d a Chron. ix. 6. 



o ( 


should befall him who was the stay of them 
all : and therefore, as humble suitors, they 
seem to beg his preservation at the hands of 

The Apostle willeth that " prayers, and sup- 
plications, and giving of thanks, be made for 
all, for kings, and all that are in authority, 
that we may Uve a peaceable life under them 
in all godliness and honesty'." Great cause had 
the men of Israel to beseech God that Josiah 
might continue with them ; for if he were 
taken away, it was because he should not see 
the evil to come. " O," saith the Prophet, 
" save and deliver David from the hand of 
strange children, that there be no leading into 
captivity, nor no complaining in our streets?." 

And thus should we add unto obedience, 
love; to love, prayer, for those whom God 
amongst men hath set in commission with). 
Himself to rule for Him : " To these," saith' 
Tertullian, " honour is due, for their excel- 
lency ; fear, for their power given them ; obe- 
dience, for civil duty ; tribute, for the pre- 

f I Tim. ii. I. g Psalm cxliv. lo. 13. 


o o 


servation of peace ; love, for affection, which 
bringeth forth prayer and piety'' :" so what 
should Christians of all other in the world, 
but honour them whom God hath placed in 
His own room for the establishing of His o';vn 
laws and worship here beneath amongst men, 
and especially appointed over His Church, 
which is the company of Christian people, for 
the quiet and conservation thereof ; according 
unto that spoken* long before : " kings shall 
be thy nursing fathers, and queens thy nurs- 
ing mothers i," 


That Christians may lawfully enjoy earthly commo- 
dities, and possess riches, and how they should 
be affected towards them. 

Man consisting of two parts, the one 
earthly, the other heavenly, hath answerable 
hereunto means allotted him of God, for the 
preservation of either ; that is, both for body 

h TertuU. ad Scap. i Isai. xlix. 23. 

) — o 

o c 


and soul ; and furthermore, temporal things 
for the state heing, and in good time eternal 
things for the time to come. 

Before God created man He first made him 
provision, and said, " Adam, have dominion 
over the fish of the sea, the fowls of the air, 
and every thing that moveth upon the earth." 
And again, " Adam, I have given thee every 
herb bearing seed, and every tree in which is 
fruitJ :" and so every thing serves Adam, and 
Adam is only to serve God. Abraham's ser- 
vant said, " God hath blessed our master Abra- 
ham marvellously : He hath given him sheep 
and oxen, silver and gold, menservants and 
maidservants ^*." Jacob, speaking of his two 
bands or great herds of sheep and camels that 
went before him, saith, " With my staff," or 
without any provision at all, a poor lone man 
as it were, " came I over this Jordan ; Lord, 
I am not worthy of the least of all Thy mer- 
cies ^." As if Jacob should have said, these 
kine and bullocks, these asses and foals, all 
this substance round about me, they are the 

j Gen. i. 38, 29. k Gen.xxiv. 35. 1 Gen. xxxii. 10. 

o . c 

O . _o 


mercies of God, and so come from the great 
storehouse of Heaven. 

In the first part of the story of Job we 
may see the description of a true Christian, 
as thus : " Job was an upright and just man, 
and one that feared God and eschewed evil'"." 

The next thing mentioned of him is, " his 
substance was very great;" yea, he was the 
*' greatest of all the men of the east :" where- 
in we may observe, he did not forget God 
when he should most have remembered Him, 
that is, when he was blessed and prospered by 
Him : but, as he abounded in riches amongst 
men, so did he also increase or abound in 
devotion towards God, Whom he feared. The 
text saith, " Job did sacrifice every day :" 
here was the right possessing of earthly sub- 
stance, rich and godly together : this was a 
rich man indeed, when both met together, 
rich in goods and goodness. " If riches in- 
crease," says the text, there is the increase of 
riches, which are given from God Himself, 
" set not thy heart upon them ;" there is the 

m Job i. f . 


O- c 


use of riches, and with what proviso we ought 
to enjoy them. 

II. To call in question whether God's peo- 
ple may possess earthly riches is an invention 
more strange than true. He which would have 
every tribe a part allotted for an inheritance, 
for them and theirs amongst His people", did 
intend no other, hut that they should suc- 
cessively have an inheritance to possess : and 
why ? " He hath given the earth and earthly 
things unto the sons of men." The laws of 
nature and nations tell us that amongst all 
men there must be meum et tuiim, " mine and 
thine :" and the Gospel doth well accord with 
this, as requisite amongst Christians, accipe 
quod tuum est, take that which is thine, or 
that- which God hath allotted thee out, and 
given thee to enjoy ». The Disciples say to 
Christ, " Where shall we buy ?" So we see 
there was somewhat possessed wherewithal to 

It was a mere irreligious, rapinous, and 
scoffing device of Julian P, to spoil the Church 

n Josh. xiv. I, 2. o Matt. xxv. 23. p Naz. Orat. contr. Julian. 

o c 

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and people of God, and prey upon their goods, 
alleging the text, " If thou wilt be perfect, 
leave all that thou hastn ;" only seek treasure 
in Heaven, this is the fittest for men of your 
profession, who have renounced the world. 

The like said Auxentius, when he would 
have the Church and Church possessions, to 
waste and consume them as he list ; but St. 
Ambrose tells him, " If Naboth would not 
leave his father's inheritance, should I leave 
Christ's inheritance ?" If it were a motion of 
God's Spirit, to give to His service, then from 
whence cometh that motion that would take 
from it ? St. Peter saith to Ananias, " Why 
hath Satan filled thy heart, that thou shouldest 
lie unto the Holy Ghost, and keep away a 

There were but shifts pretended when the 
greatest persecutors of Christians could for- 
mally tell them, " Their God was no gatherer 
of money, or possessor of riches, and that their 
account should not be for things transitory : 
wherefore they did them good, in unburden- 

q Matt. xlx. ai. 

^— o 

o -c 


ing them of these troublesome possessions ; 
and as for greater revenues, Down with them, 
down with them, even to the ground." 

III. There was no fitter way, as these men 
thought, of ruinating Christ's religion, than 
by taking away those means whereby the exer- 
cise of religion was continued ; and surely it 
was so, for soon would the public practice of 
religion decay, were there not some means by 
temporal commodities for the continuance 
thereof. To this end, therefore, endowments 
were first allotted by God Himself to the tribe 
of Levis ; and since hath He stirred up good 
men to shew great bountifulness this way, 
to set forth His worship, or " worship Him 
in the beauty of holiness," as the Prophet 

The people never thought it a burden to 
bring unto the tabernacle*, and the well- 
disposed have been glad they had somewhat 
to dispose for the setting forth of the service 
of God ; accounting it a mercy of God, they 
had the honour to do good, to be able to 

8 Josh. xiii. 14. t Exod. xxxvi. J. 

O " (• 

p — o 


distribute somewhat to the maintenance of 
His service. 

For the use therefore and exercise of Christ's 
religion, we see in the first place, not only 
how lawfully, but how religiously, these tem- 
poral and earthly possessions may be enjoyed ; 
and that the Church may use lawfully those 
benefits wherewith God hath blessed her. 

Secondly, for the state of Christians in ge- 
neral, both the hungry conceit of those, of 
whom Epiphanius maketh mention in former 
times, and the running fancy of the Anabap- 
tists of latter time, who would bring in a 
mingle mangle, partly consisting of a Plato- 
nical cor&munity, and partly also of afifected 
poverty, is most dissonant from the state and 
government of Christians, who should rather 
be helpful than chargeable to others, and by 
works of devotion, hospitality, and such like, 
honour God. 

Pharaoh cries upon the Israelites to have 
them make their stint and number of bricks^, 
and \et takes away that which should yield 

u Exod. V. :o, ii. 

> o 

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the means to accomplish their work. Chris- 
tians must feed Christ in the hungry, clothe 
Him in the naked, harbour Him in the har- 
bourless. Let these men shew how this should 
be done if earthly riches be not possessed. 

But riches, say they, are the mammon of 
iniquity, and the possession of them is the 
root of evil. True ; some men hurt them- 
selves with weapons, not using them as they 
ought, as these do in misapplying of Holy 
Scriptures ; will they therefore take away the 
use of both generally from all ? This is a far- 
fetched inference, and far from the rule of com- 
mon reason. That riches are called the riches 
of iniquity, it is not so said as if they were in 
themselves so ; but the default is, that often- 
times they become so by the fault of those 
that possess them. It is not the matter of 
money, but it is that same love of money that 
is the root of evil. Satan soonest prevailed with 
Judas that bare the bag; yea, that loved the bag. 

This was the cause of that our Saviour 
spake, " How hard it is for rich men to enter 
into the kingdom of Heaven," because rich 

o^ c 

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men for the most part are so carried away 
with the love of riches, that they oftentimes 
forget and forego the love of Gpd for a little 
dross and baggage of the world. 

This was the cause that made the young 
man in the Gospel sorrowful v. Every word 
of our Saviour was a sword that did pierce his 
heart ; " Go," and therefore make no delay ; 
" sell," and therefore depart from hence ; " all 
that thou hast," and therefore thy whole sub- 
stance ; " give," and therefore freely bestow, 
" unto the poor," and therefore to them that 
cannot recompense thee again. The text saith, 
" He was rich, and went away sorrowful ;" 
and surely so it is, that rich men in these 
cases are sorrowful. 

Christ our Saviour likeneth riches unto 
thorns "' ; and if riches be in covetous men's 
hearts, no marvel though they have many 
sorrows ; for the nature of thorns is, they are 
pricking and choking, and they grow thick. 

IV. Now, though riches sometimes, and 
to some men are the occasion of evil, when 

V Matt. xix. 31, aa. w Matt. xiii. 22. 

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o- < 


we seek them to follow vanities and live with- 
out controlment, it doth not therefore follow 
that they are so generally unto all. True it 
is that we should not trust in such uncertain 
riches, nor stay ourselves upon these inferior 
and transitory things^ but mind a state of all 
continuance to come : yet this renouncing of 
the world in affection and love, doth not en- 
join an utter contempt of all earthly benefits, 
which we may use to the good of ourselves 
and others, and yet sometimes forsake, for 
the love of heavenly things. I 

"When Christ our Saviour said, " Fear not 
them that can kill the body""^," He doth not 
exclude all reverence and fear to be given 
such ; but the meaning is, Do not so fear 
them, as you neglect to fear Him which " hath 
power to kill both body and soid." When He 
saith, " Labour not for the meat that perisheth, 
but labour for the meat which perisheth not"," 
He doth not thereby dehort us from labour- 
ing for the meat which perisheth ; but this i? 
spoken by way of comparison, that is. Do not 

w Matt. X. 28. X John vl. 37- 

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SO labour for the meat that perisheth, that you 
neglect to labour for the meat that perisheth 
not. So when He saith, " First seek the king- 
dom of God, and the righteousness thereofy," 
it is not contradictory to that of the Apostle, 
"Provide aforehand for things necessary z :" 
provide for things necessary hath its time, so 
that of our Saviour's^ primum qiicerite regnum 
Dei, be first remembered ; first seek the king, 
dom of Heaven, and the righteousness there, 
of. It was not said, in carefulness, but in 
labour, that is, in labour thou shalt eat thy 
bread. Nay, it is not so much the care, as 
the inordinate care of earthly things, which 
the Greek text hath, fitpifiva, that is there 
dehor ted. 

The care for the life present and things 
necessary thereunto, is in the Apostle com- 
mended; but in the EvangeUst, the care of 
heavenly things is preferred : he that pro- 
videth aforehand for things of this life, as he 
that giveth his virgin unto marriage doeth 
well'; but he that provideth for things ap- 

y Matt. vi. 33. i 2 Cor. viii. 21 . a i Cor. vii. 38. 

R)— O 

o ^c 


pertaining to the life to come, as he that 
giveth not his virgin doeth better. The de- 
sire of things necessary for our abode here is 
needful ; but the desire of and for our hea- 
venly being, is most needful of all. Rachel 
was the fairer, though Leah was the fruit- 
fuller t>. Our only care to possess Heaven and 
heavenly things, is like Mary's " part," which 
our Saviour Christ said " should never be taken 
from herc." 

V. A sufficiency for the maintenance of life, 
the lawful use of worldly goods and possessions 
may be continued, so we use them as mariners 
do their oars, to help them along till they come 
to the haven ; or as wayfaring men do their 
staves, which willingly they lay aside when 
their journey is done : the scope is that we be 
indifferent unto riches, and think of them in 
Christianity, as the philosopher himself did 
concerning the state of felicity : " If we have 
them, they help us ; if not, they do not undo 
us ;" because Christians can be rich with a 
little, and content howsoever, having learned] 

b Gen.xxix. :7. c Lukex.42. 

o < 

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with the Apostle " both to abound and to 
want; knowing that they brought nothing 
into this world, neither shall they carry any 
thing outiJ." 

" Think, and think again," saith St. Austin e, 
" that we Christians are not born for this 
world, or to enjoy the riches of the same, but 
we look for farther and better riches to be 
received and possessed in the world to come ; 
that is, according to our Saviour's counsel, 
we " lay up treasure in Heaven." 

VI. It is the insatiable desire of riches 
which is often reprehended : " Take heed to 
yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be 
oppressed with the cares of this life\" The 
eagle dies not so much of age as of hunger : 
of all vices none doth more wax old with 
us than covetousness. Should we be so 
earnest upon the world, which we must 
shortly leave ? How should w^e use the com- 
modities thereof, but as the Egyptians did 
their bondmen, for use only, evermore look- 
ing for greater riches elsewhere ! When Judas 

d 1 Tim vi. 7. e Epist. ad Jul. lib. xi. f Luke xxi. 34. 

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Maccabseus? saw his men over-greedy of a 
little gain, and thereupon to begin to desist 
from the battle they had in hand, he willeth 
them to follow on the pursuit of the enemy 
now flying; "for," quoth he, ''in the end 
you shall safely take the spoils, or at last you 
shall have riches enough." 

Let us not stay upon these transitory things 
too long, forgetting the present occasion we 
have in hand, but let us go forward in the 
course of Christian profession we have under- 
taken : there will come a time when we shall 
take the spoil, and have treasure to the utter- 
most of our desires. 

VII. The touchstone is said to try gold, 
and gold is said to try men : if one should 
have offered Alexander the Great, a commo- 
dity to the value of 2 ol. , and shewed him the 
mean and manner how to gain it, Alexander 
would scarce have hearkened or given ear to 
such a motion, because his mind was upon 
gaining kingdoms and empires. In like man- 
ner, tell a heavenly-minded man of compass- 

g I Mace. iv. 18. 



D O 


ing great possessions, and laying up much 
treasure, he will not much respect the dis- 
coursing of these matters ; for why ? he 
minds the getting of greater matters, or the 
attaining of a better possession ; and after 
this manner did Abraham and Jacob, and 
many others, possess riches, having their 
minds ever set upon better riches to come. 

And here is the manner how Christian men 
may enjoy riches, and hold earthly posses - 
sions : "If you do not love them as you 
possess them," saith Gregory, " you do leave 
them in possessing them : we may leave them 
even when we possess them." The reason is, 
we do not love them, or set our hearts upon 
them ; we rest content with that God hath 
bestowed upon us, and for that insatiable de- 
sire of gain, in the name of God let it go. 

A misery it is under the sun, men live poor, 
to the end they may die rich ; and make no 
end of gathering, they know not themselves 
for whom, so they may leave rich executors ; 
but they respect not the estate of their needy 
souls. There are riches that no shipwreck 


o -o 


can take from us : God grant us to be " rich 
in all good works, laying up a good founda- 
tion for the time to comeh." 


In what sense Christ exhorteth to forsake father 

and mother, and all for His sake, and 

what we learn thereby 

When we hear by that of Simeon and 
others, that Christ our Saviour was the "light 
of the Gentiles'," that by Him came "grace 
and truthk," and that He is " our righteous- 
ness 1," we readily hearken unto all this, and 
we profess we can find in our hearts to believe 
it, and we do well in so doing ; but when we 
hear on the other side, that in following of 
Him we must take up our cross, deny our- 
selves, leave father and mother, and all for His 
sake™, we draw backward, and begin to say 
with the men of Capernaum, " This is a hard 
saying and who is able to endure it" ?" 

h I Tim. vi. i8, 19. i Lukeii. 33. k John i. 17. 1 i Cor. i. 30. 
m Markviii. 34. Lukexiv. 26, 27. nJohnvi. 60. 

o o 

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We persuade ourselves we love Christ, and 
think we have discharged this love in a little 
believing in Him. No ; it is not so ; if we 
did love Christ indeed, then would we forsake 
all strange love of the world, and things there- 
of for His sake. " How canst thou say thou 
lovest, when thy heart is not with him whom 
thou sayest thou lovest « ? It is a good lesson 
from a bad teacher. 

H. All creatures, say the philosophers, de- 
sire their centre, and do nowhere rest but in 
their proper spheres ; the sparks of fire tend 
upward, the floods and all rivers have many 
turnings and windings, but they never cease 
until they come into the sea, that common 
receptacle of all waters. The soul of man 
hath her centre, which is God : she never 
resteth until she be there ; and when she is 
there, she would not be removed: " Lord, 
Thou hast made us for Thyself, and our heart 
is unquiet until it be with TheeP ?" 

We need not marvel to see men, which are 
addicted unto the love of the world, or the 

o Judg. xvi. i<. p Aug. Med. 

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flesh, or any thing, except God, how they are 
often troubled and vexed, how they are weak, 
weary, and full of discontent ; the reason is, 
they are not in their proper sphere, which is, 
not in the love of God. It is said, that when 
Christ fled from Herod, and came into Egypt, 
all the idols there fell down : and sure it is 
that when the love of Christ doth come into 
our hearts, all the idol desires of the world 
and the flesh will fall to nothing. " No man 
can serve two masters Q ;" that is, at one time 
two masters commanding contrary things ; so 
doth the love of Christ and the love of the 
world ; wherefore let us leave the one and 
cleave unto the other ; lest leaning unto the 
one we forsake the other, and ourselves be 
forsaken of Him. 

HI. And should we not forsake and forego 
all the world for Christ His sake ? Should we 
not leave chafi" for gold ? puddle-water for the 
fountain of life .'' straw and stubble for pre- 
cious stones ? nay, vile earth for Heaven it- 
self ? When EUsha followed Elijah his master ^ 

q Matt. vi. 24. r i Kings xix. 19, 20. 

o . c 

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he left his oxen ploughing, as if he had now 
a hetter husbandry in hand. When Christ 
called His Apostles, they left their fishing, 
and yet continued a trade of fishing still, for 
now they should of fishermen become " fishers 
of men," they followed Him. Peter saith, 
" Lord, we have left all :" What was this 
" all," but some old boat, and a few rotten 
torn nets, for these were now in the mending. 
Was this that " all ?" Yea, and they left more 
too at this time than Alexander the Great 
could desire ; for they left the love of the 
world for the love of Christ, which is more, 
and of more worth than many worlds. 

By this example of the Apostles, we learn 
to forsake three things for the love of Christ : 
by their nets, the pleasures of the flesh, which 
are wont to take men and snare them in ; by 
the ship, the riches of the world, which doth 
carry us away from the haven of true rest ; 
by their father and mother, those things that 
are nearest and dearest to us in the world, 
all these must we leave for the love of Christ. 
Yea, and ourselves also ; but how can that 


o o 


be ? " As thus," saith St. Gregory ; "we must 
leave ourselves as sin hath made us, and stick 
unto Him by Whom we are made by grace." 
IV. There is a nearer conjunction between 
Christ and the faithful than there is with 
father and mother, for of them we have a 
being in nature; but of Christ, a being in 
grace ; of them our being, of Christ our well- 
being. To honour father and mother, is the 
fifth commandment* but to honour God is the 
first commandment of the Law ; to shew that 
to honour God is above all. It is said, " Man 
shall leave father and mother, and live with 
his wife";" but he must leave father, and 
mother, and wife, and all, to dwell in love 
with Jesus Christ. St. Jerome saith, " If my 
father stood weeping on his knees before me, 
and my mother were behind me pulling me 
back; if all my brethren, sisters, kinsfolks, 
and children on every side were about to re- 
tain me in a sinful life, I would despise them 
all ; fling off my mother, nm over my father, 
to go to Christ who calleth me." 

I t Exod. XX. 12. u Mark X. 7. 

O o 

3 ___ _o 


" Whosoever hateth not his father for My 
sake^' :" 

A strange speech to hear Charity itself 
speak of hate, and much more to exhort it : 
but consider how it is spoken, not Kterally or 
simply to hate, for how could He speak so, 
that so much honoured His father and mother, 
and gave a law for the performance of this 
duty of love ? But we must learn that this 
was spoken comparatively, to wit, if father and 
mother will be loved more than Christ, or draw 
us from His love, then as God said unto Abra- 
ham, " Get thee from thy own country and 
kindred :" so get thee in this case from father 
and mother : yea, go a step farther, get thee 
from thine own life also. In God's name, for- 
sake thy own life ; forsake all rather than for- 
sake the love of Christ : O leave not the love 
of Jesus Christ, for if that forsake us, all the 
world cannot comfort us. 

In the eighth of St. Matthew's Gospel one 
excuseth himself not following Christ, saying, 
"Master, suffer me to bury my father:" he 

V Luke xiv. 26. 

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had a love to Christ, but a regard of his father 
stays him from the performance of any duty 
unto Him : but our Lord admits no excuse of 
carnal affection when He calls. " The father," 
saith St. Austin, " is to be honoured, but ever- 
more God is to be preferred : the father in 
earth should have honour, but the Father in 
Heaven more." 

V. One compareth the state of a distressed 
man unto that steward in the Gospel", who 
was called by his master suddenly to give an 
account of g^eat substance committed to his 
charge ; This man not able in the world to 
make any account, being afraid, his dealings 
had been so slender, to look his master in the 
face ; in this distressed condition he knows not 
what to do, he must give an account, a great 
account, and a great account suddenly. At last 
he bethinks himself of three friends he had 
and he resolves in this necessity to make a 
trial of them, what they would do for him. 
He comes unto the first of these friends, 
opening his grief: this friend tells him that 

w Luke xvi. a. 

o c 

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he could find in his heart to do him good, 
but he had so many to pleasure, that he must 
needs be pardoned for this time, and so leaves 
him. This done, he cometh unto his second 
friend, and sheweth him, as unto the first, his 
miserable estate, prays him to speak a good 
word for him ; Surely, saith he, I would speak 
for thee, but to tell thee a plain truth, when 
I come before thy master, I shall rather speak 
against thee than for thee. Now was this dis- 
tressed man more sorrowful than ever : he hath 
one only friend which he had often injured, 
and therefore was ashamed to go unto him ; 
yet at last he comes and makes his moan unto 
him. This friend had no sooner heard the 
case of this miserable distressed man, but 
forthwith he goes and maketh full satisfaction 
and account in his own person for all the debt. 
The first of these three friends is the world, 
which hath so many to pleasure, as the dis- 
tressed sinner finds little comfort, if at any 
time he crave help of it. The second friend 
is the law of God, which will rather speak 
affainst him than for him. The third is our 

0-:: o 

o ■ — o 


Lord Jesus, the surest Friend of all. Whose 
love is more dear unto us than heart can con- 
ceive ; this is the Friend that will stand by us, 
when all fail us, and should we not therefore 
forsake all for His sake? Should we with 
Demas follow the world because it hath a little 
more pleasure than Paul's preaching ? No : 
St. Paul's crown of glory will make amends 
for all, if with St. Paul we " keep the faith, 
and fight a good fight"." 

VI. What should possess our hearts wholly 
rather than the love of Christ ? To whom 
should we resign our hearts, but unto Him .'' 
Yea, w'hat have we to give Him but our 
hearts ? ^schines, a poor student, saw many 
of his schoolfellows bring presents to Socrates ; 
then he came, saying, " Sir, I have nothing to 
give; lo, I give myself!" "Because," said 
Socrates, " thou dost give thyself, thou shalt 
not lose thyself, but receive thyself bettered 
by instruction." So if we give ourselves to 
Christ, we shall receive ourselves bettered. 

The soul is as a house possessed of a tenant, 

X 2 Tim. iv. 17. 

o . — 

o -o 


which is the love of God : when the desire of 
earthly things doth come, there is no room, 
the house is taken up before. Wa^'faring men 
when they see the inn full, they pass along : 
wandering desires when they see our hearts 
full of the love of God, away they go. 


What we learn by Christ His many Miracles 
mentioned in the Gospel. 

Like as for sundry other good and godly 
respects the life of Christ may well be com- 
pared unto a book, whereupon we may often 
meditate both for the strengthening of our 
faith, and also for the instruction of our 
Christian lives ; so especially in refepect of His 
miracles mentioned in the Gospel ; for both 
how profitable and how pleasant a thing it is 
to have Christ our Saviour His miracles in 
remembrance, that of the Spouse in the Can- 
ticles doth shew, " My Spouse is as a bundle 
of myrrh :" what is this bundle but the odori- 

O . — — Q 

o c 


ferous life of the Son of God ? What are those 
Dmne miracles of His, but as sweet perfumes 
much refreshing our minds ? For if for no 
other, yet for this cause, that we might learn 
to know Him to be the true Messias, which 
was sent into the world, Christ confirmed His 
heavenly doctrine by many heavenly deeds, 
that those whom His teaching could not 
move, at least His Divine working might 

The people were content to hear His ser- 
mons, so they might see His miracles; and 
Christ was content they should see His mi- 
racles, so they would hear His -sermons. " If 
I do not the works of My Father," saith He, 
"believe Me not. But if I do, though ye 
believe not Me, yet believe Me for My work's 
sakey." The works that I do testify of Me. 
By which we may gather whereunto tended 
the miracles of the Son of God, even unto the 
strengthening of our faith. 

To manifest that He had power on earth to 
forgive sins, He saith unto the sick of the 

y John X. 37, 38. 

O c 

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palsy no more but this, " son," calling a poor 
miserable man, " son," and bidding him to 
be of good comfort. 

To confirm that He indeed was the bread 
of hfe. He feeds a great multitude with five 
barley loaves and two fishes z. To shew that 
He had authority over sea and land, He com- 
mands the waters and they obey Him''. To 
make His power known over the powers of 
darkness. He chargeth foul spirits, who had 
taken up their dens in many distressed crea- 
tures, to come forth and to depart*'. To shew 
that He was the Resurrection and the life. 
He raised Lazarus from death. The Magi- 
cians of Egv'pt did some wonders before 
Pharaoh, but they came not near to Moses' 
doings, they were only slender illusions ; yet 
Moses' miracles came far behind those of our 
Saviour ; they were so many, they were so won- 
derful, as none but God could efi^ct them. 

n. And this order did our Saviour Christ 
observe ; that from doctrine He proceeded to 
shew miracles, that if His words could not 

z John vi. II. a Luke viii. J4. b Matt. viii. 16. 

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prevail, yet His works might. By which 
works it was evident how willing He was to 
heal our infirmities, and how able to help all 
that still call upon Him. To this end there- 
fore, in the second place, serve His miracles 
to shew His power, that He was God, and 
that there is no disease so desperate which He 
by His only word cannot cure ; and in the 
third place also they serve to shew His good- 
ness, that there is none so miserable whom 
He will exclude. 

Jehoshaphat the king when he was at a great 
strait and knew not what to do, at last he 
resolved upon this, " Ask counsel of the Lord, 
T pray thee*^," said he; as if he should say, 
I will go seek help of God. When we know not 
what to do, or which way to turn us for help, 
we may resolve upon this. We will go to Christ, 
He was merciful on earth, and shewed mercy 
by many miracles in helping all that came 
unto Him, and He is the same still, sitting at 
the right hand of God in Heaven. 

in. But now observe we the manner of 


c I Kings xxii. j. 

3 O 


His working miracles ; at one time He speaketh 
the word onlyd; at another He toucheth the 
diseased e ; sometimes He cures in presence, 
at another time being far absent ; in some 
He is hfting up His eyes to Heaven*"; in 
others He prayeth openly, all which want not 
a mystery, and appertain as well to the in- 
struction of our faith as the direction of our 
life, and are as part of the Gospel, because 
they shew unto us good and joyful things. 
When the Prophets wrought miracles they 
were always praying g; but we hear Christ com- 
manding and speaking the word only, and it 
is done. He commandeth the winds and the 
seas. He chargeth diseases to cease, and devils 
to depart. Unto the leper He saith, " I will, 
be thou clean." Unto the man that lay by 
the pool of Bethesda, " Take up thy bed and 
walkli." Unto the widow's son, " Young man 
arise :" so Christ's miracles differed from the 
miracles of the Prophets and of the Apostles 
in manner of doing them. 

d Matt. viii. 13. e Matt.lx. jj. f Mark vil. 34. 
I g 2 Kings iv. 33. h John v. 8. 

.0- o 

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The Church story doth mention a certain 
letter written by Agbarus the Edesseani, the 
form whereof was this: "Agbarus the Edes- 
sean to Jesus the good Saviour in the country 
of Jury, &c. It is shewed unto me that Thou 
and Thy Disciples do give health to mortal 
men without herbs or medicines : for, as the 
fame goes of Thee, Thou dost bring to pass 
that the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers 
are cleansed, that Thou dost cast out foul 
spirits, and even raisest some dead amongst 
the people : these things when I heard of 
Thee, I began to conceive this, to wit, that 
either Thou wert God, or at the least the Son 
of God, come down from Heaven." 

In this we see that the miracles of our 
Saviour made the world to stand amazed at 
Him, and the faithful to believe on Him. 

IV. When Christ had turned water into 
wine, for it was His first miracle. Who did 
turn sorrow into joy, the Law into grace, the 
Evangelist saith, at this time He began to 

I : i Euseb. lib. i. cap. 14. 


3 : O 



" shew forth His glory, and His Disciples 
believed on Him''." 

And what else doth the daily hearing of 
His Divine miracles, but daily increase in us 
faith more and more. Let us hear them, and 
beheve on Him : " Blessed are they which 
have not seen, and yet have believed." 

Some will say, holy men of old wrought 
miracles, for at the prayer of Joshua the sun 
stood still 1 ; Elijah and Elisha did many great 
and wonderful works™. " It is so indeed," 
saith St. Austin, " but if you mark the man- 
ner, these were far inferior to Christ's miracles ; 
these wrought by prayer, Christ by his own 
power : they as holy men, He by His own 
, authority as God: they, when they raised 
one from the dead, did no more, Christ did 
. many and of divers sorts. It was but His 
j word and His deed unto the blind man, " Re- 
I ceive thy sight ;" a speech like Him that spake 
j it." 

V. If we compare Christ His miracles with 
the testimonies of the Prophets long before 

k John ii. II. 1 Josh. x. 13. m 3 Kings ii. 4—15. 

:) — . _o 

o c 


His coming ; " He hath given medicine to heal 
our infirmities," saith Isaiah, " The eyes of 
the bUnd shall be opened, and the ears of the 
deaf shall be unstopped, the lame shall leap 
as an harto," the dead men shall hve, then 
shall He preach the acceptable year : all which 
accord with His miracles in the Gospel. 

Why did the Pharisees so much envy Him, 
but for His glorious works, for which they 
should have loved Him. Never did they pur- 
sue Him more eagerly P than when He had 
now lately raised Lazarus from the dead. 
Those who scorned Him upon the cross could 
out of their own mouths judge themselves, 
saying, " He saved others^." 

VI. For those miracles of our Saviour they 
ceased not in Him either alive or dead. See 
what His power did; He was crowned with 
thorns, and now kings and emperors do cast 
down their crowns at His feet. What a death 
was that which did such things, which all the 

o Isaiah xxxv. <, 6. Dan. xii. 2. p John xl 

q Luke xxiii. 35. 


o o 


living could not do ! By weakness He over- 
came power. 

Twelve fishermen in short time subdue the 
world unto Him by suffering, and teaching 
men to suffer : by dying, and teaching men to 
die. He wrought miracles in Himself, and, as 
He before promised. He wrought by His power 
miracles in His Apostles. He cured a woman 
that touched the hem of His vesture i": and 
Peter cured divers by his very shadow « : "He 
that believeth in Me, the works that I do shall 
he do also, and greater than these shall he 
dot." Whence we see what was done in 
believing on His Name. 

The primitive Church had many miracles, 
but such miracles are now ceased : for trees 
newly planted are wont to require watering, 
but having once taken root that labour ceaseth^. 
"We rejoice, "saith Thomas Aquinas^, " that 
we are past the beginnings, not to require 
signs again. The faith of Jesus Christ, blessed 
be God, is established in our hearts, and Christ 

r Matt. ix. 31. s Acts t. i j. t John xiv, 12. 

_ u Thorn, hi Epist. Jo. 

o — -o 

o ■ ( 


doth miracles still : dumb and deaf flesh is not 
opened, but the dumb and deaf heart, by the 
operation of His word : He cured visibly the 
blindness of the body, now He cureth invisibly 
the bUndness of the understanding : He raised 
three from the dead, and so doth He still 
three sorts of dead sinners. The first was the 
Ruler's daughter, whom He raised in the pre- 
sence only of her parents, putting forth the 
multitude* ; these are those whom He raiseth 
from secret sins, known only to God and 

" The second was the widow's son, which 
was now carrying forth of the city toward the 
grave, and Christ met him by the way, and 
raised himw ; these are those who are going 
on in an evil course to the pit of destruction, 
but Christ happily meets them, preventing 
them with His grace ; being delivered to their 
mother the Church, they become new men 
and so live. 

" The third was Lazarus, who was laid in 
the grave, and had been four days dead'';" 

V Matt. ix. 34, 2j. w Luke vli. 14. x John xl. 36. 

o -o 

o — o 


these are those that have lain long in their 
sins, and begin to savour : for these Christ 
groaneth and weepeth as He did for Lazarus, 
and these He calleth by His grace at their 
dead hearts, ready to restore them to life, and 
at last they revive ; and vrhen Christ raiseth 
these He works a miracle indeed ; and yet 
blessed be His name ! for He often works this 
miracle. In the miracle of Elisha MTOught by 
the power of God, the child sneezed seven 
times : in like manner they that are raised 
from death by Christ leave seven capital sins. 

VH. By six works of mercy Christ wrought 
miracles upon the body, and by those six also 
doth He work miracles upon the soul : bhnd- 
ness is ignorance and error; lameness is in- 
firmity and waywardness of the will ; leprosy 
is concupiscence of the flesh ; deafness is obdu- 
ration of the heart; the separation of grace 
from the soul is death ; poverty is the defect 
or want of the knowledge of God. Some are 
blind by ignorance, these He illuminateth by 
the hght of faith ; some are lame by imper- 
■ fection, these He enableth by the strength of 

:) o 

o — c 


hope; some are lepers by contagion of sin, 
these He cleanseth by the merits of His death ; 
some are hardened by the obduration of heart, 
these He wakeneth by the calling of His 
Word ; some are dead by reason of sinful 
life, these He raiseth in the inward man to 
a spiritual life ; some are needy and destitute 
of help, these He adorneth and clotheth with 

Christ pronounceth a woe to those cities 
wherein most of His miracles were done, be- 
cause they believed not. " Woe be unto thee, 
Chorazin! woe be vmto thee, Bethsaiday! by 
Chorazin, may be understood the state of 
rich men ; by Capernaum, of carnal men ; by 
Bethsaida, the wise men of the world. Some 
of these miracles doth Christ work in Beth- 
saida, in Chorazin, in Capernaum, amongst 
rich men, carnal men, worldly-wise men 5 
these should have believed, but did not ; these f 
ought to believe, but do not. 

The men of the old world were overwhelmed i 
in the flood for their sins when they had no 1 

y Matt. xi. 20. 31. 

o < 

o ■ o 


other law but nature ; and of the Heathen the 
Apostle saith, that " they should be without 
excuse ; because that when they knew God, 
by the creation of the world and other visible 
things, yet they glorified Him not as God^." 
Then what shall we do that have the Scrip- 
tures to bring us unto knowledge ? The Jews 
required a sign of Christ^ when they saw 
nothing but signs from Him. 

Sergius Paulus in the Acts saw but one 
miracle of the Apostle St. Paul wrought upon 
another, and by and by he received Paul's 
preaching b. The Apostles before ever they 
saw Christ do any miracles, did but hear Him 
say, " Follow Me," and they forthwith left all 
and followed Him. " Christ began to upbraid 
the cities wherein His miracles were done^;" 
He " began" to upbraid, as if He doth still the 
same ; and He may justly do it to us, who 
have seen not one but many miracles, wrought 
not upon others only, but upon ourselves. 

Vni. A diligent view of Christ's miracles 

z Rom. i. 20, 31. a Matt, xii.38. b Acts xiii. la. 
c Matt. xi. 31. 

o o 

o o 


doth offer up unto our religious thoughts 
many things worthy of our observation, as 
first, they move to give praise and glory unto 
God, So did the Israelites when they saw 
themselves delivered by a miracle in the Red 
sea*^; so did the people in the Gospel, when 
with astonishment they cried out, " We never 
saw it on this fashion ; He hath done Eill 
things well : He maketh both the deaf to hear, 
and the dumb to speak e ;" and for these mira- 
cles we give glory unto God. Secondarily, they 
teach us to have recourse unto Him in all time 
of necessity ; for when we see Him full of pity 
and compassion, we learn not to despair but 
to trust in Him. When we see He can feed 
whole multitudes in the desert, where other- 
wise there was little hope of succour, we learn 
how powerful and how pitiful He was, and 
how ready He is to relieve. Thirdly, these, 
and the consideration thereof, may serve as an 
invincible truth for the confirmation of our 
faith, and also as a stay in times of distress 
to comfort ourselves and others. 

dExod. XV. I. eMarkvii. 37. 

o o 

o -o 



What we learn by the Divhie wisdom of Christ in 

answering His adversaries, and others 

that came unto Him. 

To come in order from the doings to the 
Divine sayings of the Son of God, for so St. 
Luke observeth. He began to do and say*": 
such Divine wisdom was there in these that it 
moved all that heard Him to admiration ; for 
why ? He always spake as He that had power 
to stir up the heart of man. When He was 
disputing in the Temple, the Doctors were 
astonished at His understanding ; when He ex- 
horted the multitude, the people were amazed 
at His doctrine : when some should have ap- 
prehended Him, they say, " Never man Spake 
like this man&." 

In St. Matthew's Gospel, the Herodians 
and the disciples of the Pharisees come with 
a question of tribute, " Master, Thou teachest 

I f Acts i. 1. g John vii. 46. 

D — — O 

o c 


the way of God trul)i — how sayest Thou, is it 
lawful to give tribute unto Caesar^ ?" They 
call him " Master," when they mean nothing 
less than to be instructed by Him : " they 
praise Him," saith St. Chrysostomi, " whenj 
their intent was to entrap Him, as flatterers 
are wont when they would draw men whither 
they list." We know, as if they would say, Thy 
sincerity is such, that Thou sparest none ; no, 
not Csesar himself : Tell us ; Thy knowledge is 
such as Thou canst soon resolve us. Christ 
perceived well enough this deceitful proceed- 
ing, refuseth their praise, reproveth their 
hypocrisy, and calling for a tribute penny, 
bids them go and do their duty in the name 
of God to Caesar, as they ought to do, for 
that very inscription of Caesar's did shew them 
as much. 

These men being answered, the Sadducees 
came unto Him with a captious question, put- 
ting the case of a woman which had seven 
husbands ; now to which of these should she 

h Matt. xxii. 16, 17. 1 Chrysost. in Matt. Horn. 


o — — . 


appertain in the Resurrection"^ ? If unto any 
one of them, then injury was offered unto the 
rest, which was evil ; if unto all, then must 
He admit a plurality or polygamy, or power 
of having many together, which was worse ; 
and therefore they thought by this subtle kind 
of question to have strongly inferred against 
the Resurrection, and to have grounded our 
Saviour at first dash. Christ soon disappoints 
them of their purpose which they missed of; 
and by and by shews them they erred, not 
knowing the Scriptures, that the Resurrection 
was not to be considered with any carnal con- 
ceit ; for there was neither marrying nor giving 
unto marriage, but they were as the Angels 
of God in Heaven. By which answer they 
were at a nonplus : whose wife of all ? why 
no one's at all : to which of them ? to none 
of them : " There is no marrying," &c. The 
text saith they were put to silence, as if now 
they had no more to say. 

II. After this, a doctor of the Law asketh 
Him which was the greatest commandment in 

k Matt. xxii. 25 — j8. 

;0 O 

o O 


the Lawl ? a question at that very time in con- 
troversy amongst the Jews, concerning the 
precepts of the Law moral, judicial, and cere- 
monial. Christ comprehends all in hrief, as 
Solomon did when he said, " The sum of 
all is. Fear God, and keep His command- 
ments'"." So the sum and substance of all 
the Law is, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy 
God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, 
and with all thy mind ; this is the first and 
great commandment ; and the second is like 
unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as 
thyself;" thereby shewing him that the scope 
of the commandments did tend principally to 
love ; and in this love God did chiefly require 
the very afl^ections of the heart, and therefore 
that they should not so much busy their heads 
about needless questions, as apply their hearts 
to keep the precepts of the Law» which in a 
generality did consist in the love of God and 
the love of our neighbour; a short lesson, and 
yet we are our whole lifetime about it. 

in. In St. John, the SCribes and Pharisees 

1 Matt.xxii. 36. m Eccles. xii. 13. 

O o 


— o 


bring Him a woman taken in adultery, and 
set her in the midst, saying, " Master, this 
woman was taken in adultery, in the very act. 
Now Moses commanded in the Law that such 
should be stoned ; what sayest Thou there- 
fore ? This they said to tempt Him"." If He 
should have condemned her, then, where is 
that mercy that all the world speaks of to be 
in Thee ? If He should not have condemned 
her, then, Lo, thou art clean contrary unto 
Moses' Law I Thus by a dilemma they thought 
to catch Him. Christ sounds the secrets of 
their hearts : He writeth upon the ground, 
but what, we know not, and then willeth 
them, after examination of themselves, to pro- 
ceed to execute the sentence of Moses' Law 
upon her. In effect the Law is just, but let 
just men execute the equity of this Law; by 
which Divine answer they all stand mute and 
confounded in themselves, and finding not 
where to reprove him, they slink away. 
" Which answer," saith St. Austin, " was 

n John viii. 4 — 6. 

O- O 

o o 


just and gentle, Let this sinner be punished, 
but not of sinners." 

When some other of the Scribes said wdthin 
themselves, " He blasphemeth ; who can for- 
give sins but God only ?" Christ knowing 
their thoughts, saitli, " Whether is it easier 
to say, Thy sins are forgiven thee, or Arise, 
take up thy bed and walk ?" " Here, first," 
saith TertuUiano, " He sheweth He was the 
Son of God." 

IV. In St. Luke, a diseased man is brought 
unto Him upon the Sabbath-day ; not to heal 
him were want of compassion ; but yet to heal 
him were to give occasion to the Pharisees 
of murmuring against Him ; murmur or not 
murmur, Christ doth the poor man good upon 
the Sabbath-day P, and shews them in the end 
thereof that, " the Sabbath was made for man, 
and not man for the Sabbath." In the same 
Gospel, Pilate the judge asketh Him if He 
were the Son of God : Christ's answer is. 

o Tert. lib. v, advers. Marcio. p Luke vl. 6 — lo. 

o — o 

o o 


" Thou hast said itQ," neither affirming nor 
denying of Himself. 

In another place, our Saviour taketh upon 
Him the person of an opponent, and asketh 
them, " The Baptism of John, whence was it ? 
from Heaven, or of men ? They reasoned 
among themselves, saying. If we shall say. 
From Heaven ; He will say imto us. Why did 
you not believe him ? And if we say. Of men ; 
we fear the people; for all hold John to be 
a Prophet. Then they answered Jesus, and 
said. We cannot tell. And He said unto them. 
Neither do I tell you by what authority I do 
these things." 

V. The like question to this proposed He 
another time unto the Pharisees, saying, "What 
think ye of Christ, whose Son is He? They 
said unto Him, David's. He said unto them, 
How doth David in spirit call Him Lord"", 
saying. The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit at 
My right hand, till I make Thine enemies Thy 
footstools? If then David call Him Lord, 

q Luke xsii. 70. r Mark xli. 25. 

s Psalm ex. I. 

D-_ O 

o ^ c 


how is He then His Son ? And they could not 
answer Him, neither durst they from that day 
forth ask Him any more questions t." Thus 
our Saviour Christ whether He were answer- 
ing or opposing the Pharisees, they saw His 
Divine wisdom was such, that they could not 
but wonder at ; and no marvel, seeing He was 
the Divine wisdom of the Father Himself. 

When the Jews object unto Him, that He 
cast out devils by the power of Beelzebub 'i, 
first, He asketh them, " By whose power then 
did their children cast them out ?" Second- 
arily, He sheweth their great error or malice, 
in objecting this against Him, for if He by 
the power of Beelzebub should cast out devils, 
then was Satan divided against himself ; if so, 
then his power could not stand ; and therefore 
the sum of our Saviour's answer was this, 
" Whosoever casteth out devils the same is 
clean opposite or contrary unto Satan :" but 
I, as you see, cast them out ; it followeth 
therefore contrary unto your assertion, that 
I do this, not by the power of Satan, but by 

t Luke XX. 42. u Luke xi. ij. 

o c 



a power opposite unto his : and thus they saw 
themselves snared in their own snare : " and 
in the trap," as the Prophet speaketh, " they 
laid for others, is their own foot taken." 

In the twelfth of St. Luke, when one said, 
" Master, speak unto my brother, to divide 
the inheritance with me;" Christ saith, "Man, 
who made Me a judge ?" Though He were a 
Judge both of quick and dead, yet He refused 
to judge in a private inheritance, to shew, that 
His first coming was not to judge, but to be 
judged : this notwithstanding. Christians may 
yet be judges in matters of controversy, as the 
Apostle requirethv. 

VI. When the young man said xmto Christ, 
" Good Master," &c., our Saviour saith, " Why 
callest thou Me good ? there is none good but 
only God." A strange answer we would think : 
why Lord, Thou art God, and therefore well 
might he say unto Thee, " Good :" but when 
we consider the matter throughly, we shall 
perceive that Christ in this answer had refer- 

I V I Cor. vi. 2. 

o o 




ence to that which this young man thought 
of Him. 

In these and many other answers of our 
Saviour to those that came unto Him, so many 
instructions have we, both for the strengthen- 
ing of our faith, and direction of our hfe, to 
give an answer unto every one that asketh us 
a reason of the hope we have, that by our 
good conversation we may stop the mouths 
of those that speak evil of us. 

Again, we may learn by some of our Sa- 
viour's answers, to have respective care in 
answering others, sometimes as He did by 
silence. This in part also He exhorteth, when 
He willeth His Disciples to be as simple as 
doves and wise as serpents. 

o o 

o o 



^Vhat we learn by our Saviour's acts, done upon the 
Sabbaths and other festival days. 

That a careful and devout contemplation of 
the life of Christ is very profitable unto us, it 
appeareth by this, that His most sacred life is 
resembled unto " the tree of life in the midst 
of Paradise," in which some boughs were, as 
it is commonly in trees, high and lofty, some, 
lower and more easy to be reached : the high 
are contemplations of His Divine actions, the 
lower are of those which are human ; a survey 
may be taken of both of these in His observa- 
tion of the Sabbath and other festivities. 

II. As concerning the Sabbath, although 
every feast in a generality be called a Sabbath, 
we find it continued all along until the coming 
of our Saviour Christ, who did Himself ratify 
the lawful use thereof by His own example. 
Who upon the Sabbath-day was often teach- 


o c 


ing in the Synagogue of the Jews^^ ; and at 
other festival times He resorteth unto Jeru- 
salem, as we find in the Gospel, there to keep, 
after the manner and ancient custom of the 
people of God, their feasts appointed to be 
kept by the ordinance of God Himself. Of 
this ordinance we read in Leviticus, " And 
the Lord spake unto Moses, saying. Speak 
unto the children of Israel, and say unto them. 
The feasts of the Lord, which you call holy 
assemblies, even these are My feasts"." There 
mention is made of the Sabbath, the Passover, 
the feast of unleavened bread, the feast of first 
fruits, the feast of tabernacles ; concerning 
all which Moses not only mentioneth that God 
will have these obsei^ved, but also setteth down 
in particular with what circumstances, and the 
manner how. 

111. When as now in the first table of 
the Lawy God had shewed both His external 
and internal worship in the two former pre- 
cepts thereof, and in the third placed re- 
verence and honour to be done unto His 

w Luke vi. 6. Markiii. i. x Lev. xxiii. i, 2. yExod.xx. i — 13. 

o c 

D O 


holy Name : that there might be also a 
sanctified day separated from others, for the 
observation of these holy duties, therefore in 
the fourth commandment doth He command 
a sanctified and holy time, to shew, that as 
He had given lav?s for His worship, so also 
wovdd He ordain a time for His worship ; 
which time He would have to be holy ; which 
holiness He would have to resemble His own 
rest, the seventh day sanctified by Him, His 
rest, so called in that He rested the seventh 
day. He rested or ceased from the creation of 
the world. And man was created toward the 
end of the sixth day, that He might begin to 
lead His life upon a time sanctified, which was 
the seventh day. 

This commandment God setteth down in 
many words, as if He were the longer ex- 
pressing it, to teach His people to be the 
more careful in observing it. The other laws 
were only negative, but this both negative 
and affirmative ; not only shewing what we 
should do, but what we should not do. " Thou 
shalt keep holv, and, Remember that thou keep 

o : o 

O— ( 


holy ; Thou shalt not labour z," and so forth, as 
is expressed in the Law. When the Prophets 
would shew, either wherein a people did ho- 
nour God, or otherwise dishonour Him, they 
mention it in keeping or not keeping the 
Sabbaths : wherefore Isaiah saith, " Blessed 
is the man that keepeth the Sabbath a." And 
when the prophet Ezekiel would shew how 
the people had cast off all reverence of God, 
he expresseth it in this phrase, " They 
have polluted My Sabbaths''." Wherefore 
in observing the Sabbath, we are to consider 
the rest, and the sanctifying of this rest : 
for it ought not to be beastly rest, for that is 
Sabbathum bonum : nor a profane rest, for that 
is Sabbathum Shilo'^ : they there gave them- 
selves to wantonness ; but our Sabbath is, or 
ought to be, an holy rest. 

IV. What our Saviour determineth con- 
cerning this. Who " came not to break the 
Law, but to fulfil if*/* we may easily perceive. 
That part of the Sabbath which was ceremo- 

zExod.xx. 6 — II. a Isaiah Ivi. 2. bEzek. xx. i6. 
c Judg. xxi. 19. d Matt. v. 17. 

O C 



nial, we acknowledge to cease ; but for the law 
moral, that still to remain the same, for the 
rest of our very cattle, and therefore much 
more the servants that live under us, and 
principally for the religious use it hath 
amongst Christians, that God may still have 
a sanctified day consecrated before others unto 
His worship, and man a vacation from bodily 
labours, as agreeable to the condition of his 
estate, which doth require rest. 

Mention is often made in the Gospel what 
our Saviour did upon the Sabbath days ; be- 
sides His teaching. He cured many that came 
unto Him, and had much ado with the Pha- 
risees, in shewing them their superstitious 
observation of the same ; the right use 
whereof He most truly obsers'ed in doing so 
many sanctified works therein e, in curing 
diseased creatures*'; which the rulers of the 
synagogue could not brooks. 

h In the fifth of St. John, He bids the man 

eLukevi.6. Matt. xii. ii. f Mark iii. i. 4. John v. 9. 
gLukevi. II. h Ambrose de Fide, lib. iv. cap. 3. sanatis jam 
mandabat officium. 


o c 


that had long time lain by the pool's side, to 
take up his bed and walk, and cured him. 
" Now this," saith the Evangelist, " was the 
Sabbath-day." If it had not been upon the 
Sabbath-day, haply there had jiot been so 
many eyewitnesses of the power of God. In 
curing another upon the same day, Christ 
took occasion to shew the end of the Sabbath, 
that it was " made for man, and not man for 
the Sabbath* :" as also to manifest the works 
of the Sabbath, what they were, and of what 
nature : to do good upon this day, were it but 
to a dumb creature, Christ did not disallow : 
and the Pharisees did not amiss in lifting out 
an ox or an ass from the ditch upon this day : 
but how much more was it agreeable unto the 
sanctifying of the Sabbath, to help a distressed i 
man, and to loose one whom Satan had bound 
so many years ! ,] 

For the superstitious observation of the^ 
Sabbath which the Jews used, it grew as we 
may perceive by our Saviour's discourse, withi; 
them, from very ignorance of the very first ' 

i Matt. xii. 8. 

O -q 

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institution. It was not said. Thou shalt cele- 
brate the Sabbath with rest ; but, Thou shalt 
sanctify, or thou shalt keep the Sabbath with 
a holy rest. 
! Again, to shew that Charity, which is the 
sum of the Law in general, is to be preferred 
before any law in particular, for " I will have 
mercy and not sacrifice'^," saith the Lord, 
Christ our Saviour, as we see, chiefly aimed 
at doing good upon the Sabbath-day. Secretly 
to intervent thy neighbour, or openly to envy 
a poor man's health, was with the Pharisees 
no breach of the Sabbath ; but to do good 
upon it, by and by in their ignorant and 
scrupulous conceit, the Sabbath is broken. 
For the kindling of fire, but chiefly the ga- 
thering of sticks, was it not punished in a very 
high degree^ ? and therefore not the least 
action to be done in any case, say they, upon 
the Sabbath-day. These men considered not 
how the first institution required strictness, 
which in that instance is manifest for the de- 
terring of others. Contempt is one thing, 

k Hosea vi. 0. 1 Num. xv. 36. 

3 '. o 

O ( 


necessity is another, which Christ shewed was 
to be considered in excusing His Apostles, 
when they were murmured at for plucking 
the ears of corn on the Sabbath-day "i. Thej 
ignorance of the Pharisees did cleave only to 
the letter of the Law. Doubtless with great 
religion did the old Israelites well observe and 
keep the holy Sabbath of the Lord, which 
day God Himself sanctified from the begin- 
ning : as this day Noah in the " ark rested 
on the mountains of Ararat "^ ;" as this day 
the " Israelites were delivered from Egypt°," 
when they rested from the oppression of 
Pharaoh ; as this day " the people brought 
Christ into Jerusalem with palm boughs a 
little before His Passion p. ;" as this day shewed 
He " His first miracle at Cana in Galilee <l ;" 
as this day after all His miracles rested He in 
the sepulchre, gloriously arising from the dead 
the day following r, which day by the consti- 
tutions of the Apostles themselves^, and so 
authors against whom no exception can be 


m Lukevi. 3. n Gen. viii. 4. o Exod. xii. 41. 

p John xii. 13. q John ii. 11. r Watt, xxviii. i. s Acts xx. 7. 

) o 


taken, the Church celebrateth as her Christian 
Sabbath unto the Lord. This is therefore 
called by St. John, our " Lord's day*/' from 
the Resurrection : that which the heathen 
called dies Soils, and dedicated to the sun, we 
call Sunday, as dedicated to the service of the 
Son of God. 

Concerning the alteration hereof the pro- 
phet Hosea might seem to speak when he 
saith, " I will cause their Sabbaths and feasts 
to cease"." " The day of the Lord," saith 
St. Austin^, " which we keep as our Sabbath, 
it is not only a remembrance of His Resur- 
rection past, but a type and figure of that 
eternal Sabbath which is to come. The altera- 
tion, in part, is as thus ; they did celebrate 
their Sabbath with a remembrance of the 
creation, we of the Resurrection ; they as a 
figure of grace, when they should rest from 
the servitude of sin, we as a figure of glory, 
when we shall rest from occasions of sinning. 

VI. Eusebius"^ sheweth us of certain men, 

t Apoc. i. 10. Ku»/ax5} ii«ffa. u Hos. il. ii. 
Civit. Dei, lib. xxii. %v Euseb. lib. ill. cap. 27. I 


o ^ c 


called Ebionites, which would keep the Sab- 
bath with the Jews, and the Sunday with the 
Christians, like men who would be of all 
religions when they are indeed of none. 
Others tell us of the Petrohrussiani, a kind of 
men which would have no solemn and sancti- 
fied feasts to the honour of God at aU. The 
Jews were not so superstitious as these were 
irreligious. These men are gone, but yet their 
fancies in some part remain, for the former, 
to wit, the superstitious manner of the Jews 
in keeping their Sabbath, we see it refuted by 
our Saviour, and the right use to be kept 
how and sifter what manner. 

The question hath been moved, whether the 
Maccabees did well in violating the Sabbath ^. 
The question rightly proposed is otherwise : 
Whether the Maccabees in fighting that day 
did violate the Sabbath ? Many began to wax 
scrupulous ; Mattathias, a good and godly 
captain, saw it was no time to stand upon 
points ; that now they must either fight it out.^ 
like men, or be murdered like beasts : to be:; 

X ( Mace. ii. 34. 

o . 

) o 


hammering upon nice matters of the Law, 
when the enemies of God were ready to de- 
stroy the Law and them, he thought it not 
good; but to defend themselves, and oflfend 
their enemies, which was approved, the case 
standing as it did. 

For the Sabbath-day's journey, which con- 
sisted, as some say, of two miles' distance, for 
that the people placed their tents, or the utter- 
most parts thereof, so far from the tabernacle, 
or that mount Olivet was about that distance 
from Jerusalem y, whither the people on that 
day might repair, the discussing hereof is not 
so necessary ; for the travel of the physi- 
cians, or any, in case of necessity, so it be 
not ordinary upon this day, men need not to 
be so nice, and indeed Jewishly conceited as 
they are, if in this they remain opinionated. 

In the Christian observation of our Sabbath, 
to stand upon a number of curious and need- 
less quirks is without judgment and learning, 
and in part Pharisaical. It were to be wished, 
that a serious and reUgious observation thereof 

y Acts i. 12. 

D- O 

o c 


were in use, without further frivolous devices 
of running fanciers. The people upon other 
days offered a lamb, but upon the Sabbath i 
two lambs were offered, as if on that day our 
devotion should be doubled x. Every day would 
David worship God ; yea, and seven times 
a day would he call upon Himz. This is the 
day wherein we should call upon God more 
than ordinary, a day of prayer and meditation, 
of reconciling ourselves to God and man, of 
doing good, and sanctifying a holy time with 
holy conversation, therefore called the Lord's 
day, because the Lord should chiefly be wor- 
shipped upon this day. 

Vn. In the second place, for the observa- 
tion of other festival times and annual solemn- 
ities, it hath been shewed that Christ our 
Saviour went often unto the feasts. 

A little before His passion, His Disciples 
came unto Him, saying, " Master, where wilt 
Thou that we prepare the Passover a?" as if 
they knew it was their Master's manner to 
keep the feast now approaching. For the 

y Numb, xxviii. o, i Psalm cxix. 164. a Matt, xxvi. 17. 

o . . c 

> — o 


feasts of the Jews there is no question, as 
they were commanded of God, so were they 
ever solemnly kept of the godly. As they had 
their feasts, so have Christians theirs. " Christ 
our Passover is offered for us ; therefore," 
saith the Apostle, " let us keep the feast^." 
They had a Passover, and we have a Passover 
too : they were delivered out of the bondage 
of Egypt, and we are delivered from a bondage 
too : they kept a solemn remembrance, and we 
have as much cause as ever they had to keep 
a solemn remembrance too. By their feast of 
firstfruits*^, the fiftieth day after the Passover, 
they held a holy assembly unto God, we 
who have received the firstfruits of the Spirit, 
by the coming down of the Holy Ghost, at the 
feast of Pentecost upon the Apostles, and con- 
sequently upoii the whole Church, hold an 
holy assembly unto the Lord also. 

The other of our Christian feasts which 
concern the chief points of our redemption, 
as the blessed Birth of Christ, His Circum- 
cision, the Epiphany, and His Resurrection 

b I Cor. V. 7, 8. c Lev, xxiii. lo. 

) o 

O ( 


from the dead, have so good use in the 
Church, as the ancient custom, and Christian 
manner of the best, and best learned, that have 
Uved since the Apostles' time, as is of more 
sufficiency to make us continue the godly use 
thereof, than all that the devisers of novelties 
are wont to say, to draw us by forced texts to 
the contrary. Satan is subtle, and never more 
than when he is changed into an angel of 
light. To take away a religious remembrance 
of Him who shed His blood for our redemp- 
tion ; to pass over the memory of His most 
blessed birth without any solemn observation, 
were the next way to make both duty and 
love wax cold in Christians, and by little and 
little to forget all, and that which we may 
tremble to think, Christ Jesus and all. 

Wherefore we cannot but muse whereunto 
that strange spirit did tend, which was ready 
to control every Christian constitution, which 
eagerly sought the aversion of our solemn 
and Christian feasts. " These we keep," saith 
St. Austin d, " lest unthankfulness or forgetful- 

d Aug. de Civit. Dei, lib. x. cap. 4. 

O -( 

3 — o 


ness should grow upon us ; and therefore a sin 
is it for men to spend their time, and trouble 
the quiet of the Church, in seeking to over- 
throw the Christian use of solemn and seemly 
observations." " By our feasts," saith Ter- 
tullian^, speaking in the behalf of Christians 
against the Heathen, " we sanctify unto God 
the memory of His benefits." Epiphanius^ 
taxeth ^rius for denying Christian solemni- 
ties. They have little in them except boldness 
which charge us that our ancient rites come 
within the compass of St. Paul's reprehension, 
" You observe times and seasons^ :" No, no, 
there is no such matter, they are far from 
fatal surmises of constellations, or any other 
heathenish rites. There is no such fear, God 
be praised, in our Christian solemnities ; where- 
fore, unless we see them more strongly refuted 
than so, that is to say, by a few new names of our 
feasts, there is no cause but the Church should 
still continue them in Christian manner, as she 
doth, and so shall by the grace of God. 

Christ our Saviour Himself hath honoured 

eTertuU. ad Physic. f Epiphan. Horn, yj, gGal.iv. lo. 

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o — ( 


these times by His blessed Birth, His Resur- 
rection, and Ascension up into Heaven : at 
which times we honour Him, as at all times, 
so especially when we have feasts consecrated 
to a commemoration of His goodness towards 
us, when we in love and pious manner assemble 

Vni. Sometimes we celebrate the mention 
of the Martyrs and Saints of God, who have 
lived in former times ; and this we do for no 
other end, but only to set before us examples 
of repentance, of faith, of piety. Besides, oc- 
casion is offered of public prayer, which the 
oftener we frequent, the greater is our devo- 
tion. Abuse taken away, we see the keeping 
of these feasts is a commendable and Christian 

IX. For the manner of keeping them : first, 
these duties of devotion, as prayer, hearing 
the Word of God, receiving the Sacraments, 
require our special care ; in these our laud 
and praise is offered unto God ; and therefore 
of the learned they are called in the Hebrew 
kaggei, times of rejoicing. 

o c 

J _ __ o 


Secondarily, at these times we extend, as 
we may, bounty unto others ; and therefore 
saith St. Austin*^, " festival times should have 
liberality, which make many bless God for 
His benefits." 

Last of all, these solemnities orderly ob- 
served, they do sometimes call us away from 
the inordinate cark and care of the world, 
and move in our hearts many good and com- 
fortable thoughts, in calling to mind the time 
will come, " when we shall keep the Feast of 
feasts in Heaven. " 


What we learn by Christ His weeping 
over Jerusalem. 

That it fared not with the Son of God 
here on earth, as it did with king Solomon, 
who spent his time in great royalty in the 
world i, or as it is said of Aristoxenus the 
philosopher, who led all his life amidst in- 

n Aug. in Adv. Dom. i 2 Chron. ix. 9. 


o c 


struments of music : we all know it fared far 
otherwise with Him, who did seldom laugh i 
in the world, and the world again did as | 
seldom laugh upon Him. St. Luke tells us 
of His sad journey towards Jerusalem, how 
He passed the way weeping'', and what small 
delight He took in the people's " hosanna," 
or all the troop at that time about Him ; for, 
as it is mentioned, while they were singing, 
He was mourning. Christ was not moved 
with that which was without ; but respects 
that which was within : the wickedness of 
Jerusalem makes Him to weep. He wept for 
them which would not weep for themselves. 
David saith, " Mine eyes gush out with water, 
because men keep not Thy law." Christ's 
eyes gushed out with watery tears, because j 
they would not " know the day of their visit- 
ation' :" nay, they would not accept His love. 
He saw the city, and foresaw the ruin and 
misery thereof. The women of Jerusalem wept 
when they saw the calamity of Christ : Christ 
here weepeth for the calamity of Jerusalem 

k Luke xix. 41. 1 Luke xix. 44. 

o c 

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to come : and thus He doth not so much by 
words as by tears shew His sorrow for the 
sins of the city ; and weeping words also are 
not wanting, " O, if thou hadst known," &c. 

II. The Prophets of old have sometimes 
spoken unto the sons of men by sorrowful 
signs, as well as by sayings. Samuel, when 
he would manifest how Saul's kingdom should 
be rent from him, having the lap of his coat 
in his hand, he rent it in the midst"". Ezekiel, 
to shew the destruction of the people, takes 
a brick stone, and lays it before them, and 
pourtrays upon it the city, and layeth siege 
against it". 

Christ at this time spake Httle, but His tears 
prophesied great sorrow to come : He came 
near the city, not so much in motion as in 
commiseration. David wept for Absalom, say- 
ing, "O my son Absalom, my son, my son 
Absalom ! would God I had died for thee, 
O Absalom, my son, my son^ !" Christ did as 
much mourn for Jerusalem as ever David did 
for Absalom : Jerusalem, Jerusalem, I would 

m J Sam. xv. 27. n Ezek. iv. i. 02 Sam. xviii. 33. 

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to God I had died for thee ! Know, Jerusa- 
lem, I am now going to die for thee : O what 
should I do unto thee that I have not done, 
except dying ! 

Many a time came Christ towards Jerusa- 
lem, but He never came weeping as now He 
did, because Jerusalem was never so near 
desolation and ruin, as now it was ; and there- 
fore Christ never sorrowed more for it than 
now He did. 

Was this weeping for the overthrow of the 
walls and goodly buildings of Jerusalem ? No, 
it was for the sins of Jerusalem, which should 
be the cause of Jerusalem's desolation. What 
affection was here in the eternal Son of God, 
to weep for sinful men ! even then was He 
weeping, when they were most rejoicing and 

The physician most weeps when the frantick 
patient is or seems to be most merry, because 
he knows then the danger is greatest, and there- 
fore gives over to administer physic any more, 
leaving him to be lamented of his good friends. 

III. " O that thou hadst known in this thy 

o o 

o ^ -o 


day those things that belong unto thy peace !" 
Which words were weeping words, as I said, 
and uttered with an interrupted voice, and as 
it were for very sorrow, breaking off in the 
midst by a manner of speech called aposiopesis, 
when there was something more to be spoken, 
but very sorrow hinders Him for making a 
perfect sentence. I weep, but O Jerusalem, 
which art now rejoicing, and oughtest to have 
tears to prevent tears, if thou didst know the 
things which do belong unto thy peace, thou 
wouldest as well weep for thyself as I do 
weep for thee. Thou hast had a day of 
peace, but there is a day coming full of sor- 
row and persecution. O Jerusalem, because 
thou wouldst not accept the one, thou art like 
shortly to rue the misery of the other. In 
this, Christ lamented their forgetfulness of 
their estate : in prosperity men remember not 
what is to come afterwards. 

And thus hear we a mournful physician 
weeping for his wilful patient, which would 
not be healed nor receive help though it were 
offered with tears. 

0- o 

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IV. The most doleful desolation that came 
upon this cityP about forty years after, Jeru- 
salem having yet forty years' space to repent ; 
the most doleful desolation, I say, that came 
upon this city, so mighty in prowess, so glori- 
ous in fame, so rich in all abundance, is set 
forth by those who have mentioned the tra- 
gical end which befell the same. The be- 
holding thereof made Eleazar, one of the 
inhabitants at the very time, to break out 
into this or the hke mournful oration : O Je- 
rusalem, thou great and goodly city of the 
world, where is now the beauty of Sion, " the 
joy of the whole earth ?" where is thy glory, 
where is thy magnificence, O Jerusalem ? 
where is that Sanctum Sanctorum ? where are 
thy Priests, who were attendant upon God as 
Angels ? where are thy sages, thy young 
men ? O from what glory art thou fallen, to 
what reproach and infamy ! O Jerusalem, Jeru- 
salem ! who can read with dry eyes the most 
woful end of this city and people ? They re- 
fused the Father and the Son, and God sent 

p Kgesi. Joseph. 

o c 

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Titus and Vespasian, the father and son, that 
never left them until they were utterly de- 
faced. O Jerusalem, strongly did thy enemies 
besiege thee, but thy sins did more strongly 
assault thee ! They sold the Saviour of the 
world for thirty pence, and what followed in 
the captivity ? thirty Jews were sold for a 
penny. The Lord Jesus was apprehended 
upon mount Olivet, and upon mount Ohvet 
was Jerusalem first besieged. The Lord Jesus 
was crucified at the Passover, and at the Pass- 
over was all Jewry, as it were, shut up in a 
prison, Jerusalem sacked, and in such sort, as 
the Romans themselves confessed, saying. That 
unless this people had ofi'ended the God of 
Heaven, they could never have prevailed 
against them as they did. An eleven hundred 
thousand, saith the history q, changed life with 
death, and that within the circuit of a short time. 
Thus have we heard of Christ His weeping 
over Jerusalem, and the cause which moved 
Him to weep, by which, without further ap- 
plication, we may consider, as St. Gregory 

q Josephii?. 

:) o 

o— — c 


saith, that their destruction is our admonition. 
If the natural branches were cut off, then may 
the wild fear. When Scipio saw Carthage 
burn, he wept : being asked the reason, " For 
that, saith he, I know not what shall become 
of Rome." The destruction of Jerusalem is like 
a thunderclap in which one is stricken, but 
many hear the noise, which may make them 
to fear. 

V. For three causes did Christ our Saviour 
weep, and at three several times : first, Christ 
wept, that we should have by so much the 
more our hope and confidence in Him, when 
we see Him weeping for us ; which proceeded 
of mere compassion : secondarily, Christ wept, 
to teach us to weep and bewail our own 
misery and our own sins, as He did for the 
misery and sins of others : thirdly. He wept, 
to shew us when we should weep, even then 
when we think ourselves in greatest security. 

At three times also did He weep : first, in 
raising Lazarus, there He bewailed man's 
miserv : secondly, as at this time, over Jeru- 
salem, here He bewailed man's security : 

o c 

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iirdly, upon the cross, there He bewailed 
iiin's infirmity. If our Saviour Christ were 
on to weep in the presence of others, we 
ay easily conceive that secretly in the days 
f His flesh He often " offered up groans," as 
the Apostle speaketh, with " strong crying and 
tears, unto Him that was able to deliver Himf." 
VI. Now what may we learn by this weep- 
::^ love of Christ, Who of charity wept for 
ii\y sins and for thy sins? Shall we see, saith 
Cassiodor, the prince himself weeping, and 
we in the meanwhile solace ourselves in plea- 
sure and vain sporting ? Is he a good child, 
that beholding his father sit in sackcloth and 
bes, will stand by laughing and sporting, as 
nothing moved ? Shall the Son of God weep 
for thy sins, and wilt thou delight thyself in 
vain mirth ? O Christian soul, mourn a little. 
When the house is on fire, we bring water ; 
when the soul is inflamed with unlawful de- 
sires, we bring the tears of repentance. Call 
to mind that doctrine of Christ, " Blessed are 
, th3y that mourn :" harsh doctrine^ but sweet- 

i r Heb. v. 7. 

:) o 

o — c 


ened with a blessing. It was the prayer of 
St. Austin*, " O God, give me the grace of 
tears." And there is in godly minds, saith 
St. Ambrose, a certain delight to weep ; a 
delight of weeping. Once God opened the 
windows of heaven to drown a world of sin- 
ners ; the godly often open the windows of 
the body to drown in themselves a world of 

" The unwise make but a sport of sin^," saith 
Solomon, their heart is as a barren land, where 
all remembrance of God is forgotten ; but the 
wise man is conversant in the house of mourn- 
ing. Pharaoh and his host were drowned in 
the sea"^, as sin and the works of sin are in 
the tears of repentance. Those who were 
diseased, found cure in the troubled pool^^'. 
We lost our felicity by delightful eating, and | 
we recover ourselves by mournful chastening. 

" There is," saith the Wise Man, " a time to 
rejoice and a time to mourn 'f." Many take \ 
their time of rejoicing, but cannot hit upon 

t In Med. u Prov. xiv. 9. v Exod. xiv. s8. 

w John V. 4. X Eccles.iii. 4. 

o c 

0^~ — o 


the time of mourning. " O that we did know, 
at the least in this our day, those things that 
do belong unto our peace ;" better is it to 
mourn here than hereafter. When we are 
moved to mournful passions, let us remember 
with how small pomp and pleasure Christ 
passed His time in the world. Who passed it 
in often weeping. The two kine carrying the 
ark, they lowed all the way as they went, 
and yet never stayed until they came to the 
place appointed y. We go on weeping in this 
vale of tears, but yet keep on the way still, 
until we come unto our journey's end, and 
then an end of weeping. Here as in " Ramah, 
a voice is heard of weeping and mourning^," 
hereafter they shall have "all tears wiped 
from their eyes*." The prophet Ezekiel, 
when he came to see the glory of the Lord 
in the sanctuary, was brought about by the 
north^ : we pass along by many sorrows, and 
then come to see the goodness of the Lord in 
the land of the living. 

y 1 Sam. vi. la. i Jer. xxx. ij. 

a Isai. XXV. 8. b Ezek. xliv. 4. 

,. _-o 

o c 


Of mournful events, how the godly take 
them, Jeremiah saith, " This is my sorrow, and 
I will bear it ;" and Eli said, " It is the Lord, 
let Him do as it seemeth good unto Him :" 
because he that now goeth forth weeping, shall 
one day return, saith the Prophet David, and 
bring his sheaves with him : those that for 
a time do mourn with Christ, the time will 
come when they shall rejoice with Him. 


That Christians ought often to meditate of our Saviour 

Christ His Passion, and how this doth serve for 

the comfort of our faith, and also for the 

instruction of our lives. 

When some great prince intendeth to en- 
counter his enemies, first come the heralds and 
trumpeters before him, then comes his standard- 
bearer, and then he himself comes in person. 
So was it with our Lord and Saviour, first He 
sent the Patriarchs His heralds, then the Pro- 

o _ c 

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phets His trumpeters, then came John the 
Baptist His standardbearer, who is stricken 
down dead before Him. Did this dismay 
Him ? No, for all this He goetli on con- 
stantly, and with resolution to die in the 
battle, touching Whose victorious death, let 
us now enter into some meditation, and hence 
learn to live to Him who died for us miserable 
sinners. Although in meditating upon the 
holy virtues of Christ our Saviour, which 
worthily require our most devotionate con- 
sideration, we are much moved, I doubt it 
not, yet when we begin to call to mind His 
Passion, that ocean sea of all goodness, then 
ought we to be even carried away from our- 
selves by admiring His wonders towards us. 
And here it may be said to devout souls, as it 
was to the Disciples in the garden, " sit ye 
heref." Let us not say unto Christ with the 
Jews, Come down from the cross ; but let us 
fasten ourselves to His cross by godly medi- 

H. And now to make an entrance hereunto : 

c Malt. xxvi. 36. 

o o 

o ^ c 


" Christ loved us," saith the Apostle, " and 
gave Himself a sweet smelling sacrifice and 
oblation unto God^," wherein we may consider 
these three things. First, the moving cause, 
to wit, love; " Christ loved us." Secondarily, 
the offering which this love caused Him to 
offer, " He gave Himself." Thirdly, the end 
why he gave this offering, " that He might 
be a reconciliation for man with God the 
Father." For the first, to wit, love, the 
moving cause of all ; if a mother love her 
child because she bought it with pain, never 
mother bought her son with so great pain as 
Christ bought us : what greater love is there 
than for one to give his life for his friend ? 
Yet greater was Thy love, O holy Son of God, 
Who gavest Thy life for us that were Thine 
enemies. Doubtless, saith the Apostle, " »ne 
will scarce die for a righteous man," and yet 
One is found to die for us that were un- 
righteous, and then too when it was in His 
power to die or not to die. These things 
may be considered that His love that loved 

d Ephes. V. 2. 

o c 

3 O 


sinners, that is the love of the Son of God, 
may incite our aflfection to Him ; He that had 
not sins of His own suffered for the sins of 

" The greatest perfection and force of love," 
say the philosophers, " is the force unitive, and 
this was never in any so forcible as in Christ, 
when He would imite unto Himself His Church 
or Congregation ; which accordeth with that 
of the Holy Ghost, ' Let a man so love his 
wife as Christ loved the Congregation d :' the 
wife is chargeable, but far more chargeable 
was the Church to the Son of God." 

ni. As for the offering, it was Himself; 
Aaron and aU his sons never made such an 
offering as this was. He gave Himself a 
sacrifice, and in a sacrifice there are consi- 
dered four things : first, quis offert, " who it is 
that offers ;" secondly, quid offertur, " what is 
offered ;" thirdly, cui offertur, " to whom it is 
offered ;" fourthly, quare offertur, " wherefore 
it is offered." The quis offert is Christ, the quid 
offertur is Himself; Christ offered Himself: 

d Ephes, V. JJ. 

o o 

o ■ c 


the cm to God : pro quibus, for whom ? for 
us wretched sinners. Why, was there nothing 
in Heaven or earth that could have been oflfered 
else ? Was there no other sacrifice to be had 
but innocent Isaac ? Must none be approved 
to make a reconciliation for man, but the Son 
of man ? Was sin then so heinous that no- 
thing could cleanse the contagion thereof but 
the death of an innocent lamb ? Stand and 
hear a httle, O sinful man, thy Saviour Him- 
self speaking unto thee. For thy sake do I 
suiFer all this : for thy sake do I offer Myself, 
as thou seest, a sacrifice upon the cross : all 
this do I do for the love of thee ; thy sins are 
the thorns that pierced My head, the spear 
that opened My side : thy delicates was the 
vinegar and gall that I drank ; thy liberty and 
looseness was the nails that fastened Me to the 
cross : see whither thy sins, thy vanities, O 
man, have brought Me ! Behold Me suffering 
for thee, to reconcile thee unto My Father. 
Doth He not by this, O Christian man, inflame 
thee with His love, strengthen thee with His 
merit, and comfort thy sorrowful heart with 


o o 


His abundant mercy ? If He were punished for 
us, then were we punishable of ourselves. 

When now justice had taken place, for 
rather than sin should be unpunished, God 
would punish it in His own Son, when His 
just wrath began to wax fiercer and fiercer 
amongst the rest of the people, Aaron makes 
speed, takes the censer in his hand, puts on 
incense, and goes quickly unto the congrega- 
tion to make an atonement for them^. This 
atonement hath our Aaron made for us all 
when He ofi^ered no other oflfering than Him- 

IV. What hath man more to offer or to give 
than his goods, his honour, and his life ? All 
this hath Christ offered and given for us : His 
goods, when He left His kingdom in Heaven : 
His honour, when He was reproached of men : 
His life, when He yielded up the same for us 
upon the altar of the cross. But how many 
indignities did He suffer before He came to 
the accompHshment hereof, when as like a 
meek lamb He was carried and recarried from 

e Numb. xvi. 47. 

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judgment to judgment, when He was mocked 
and scorned of all sorts ! 

In His suffering itself, we may consider 
amongst whom, where^ and when He suffered : 
amongst whom ? Even His own people : so 
Pilate said, " Thine own nation hath delivered 
Thee unto me^." When ? At the festival 
solemnity, when others were rejoicing He 
was suffering. Where ? At Jerusalem, the 
king's city, and there without the gate of 
the same city, in a place called Calvary, 
where thieves and murderers were wont to 
suffer. " O all you that pass by, behold and 
see if there was ever sorrow like My sorrow & !" 
From the hour wherein He was sought for, 
and taken by torch-light and lanterns, until 
the sixth hour of His crucifying, that He gave 
up the Ghost : one betrayeth Him, another 
apprehends Him ; one binds Him, another 
leads Him bound from Pilate to Herod, from 
Herod to Pilate again : one seeketh false wit- 
ness against Him, another crieth out upon 
Him, He is not worthy to live : one scourgeth 

f John xviii, 3J. g Lam. i. u. 

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Him, another strikes Him on the face : one 
clotheth Him with purple, another putteth a 
crown of thorns upon His head, a third gives 
Him a reed, mocking Him : so they never let 
Him rest until they have no more to do with 

V. When we have seen the manner of His 
suffering, let us consider how great He was 
that suffered : even He it was to Whom power 
over all things in Heaven and earth was given h. 
He, before Whom the twenty-four elders fall 
down : He, Whose countenance John a little 
after beheld to shine as the sun in his strength, 
when he saw Him and fell at His feet as dead, 
hearing a voice ; " Fear not ; I am the first 
and the last : and I am alive, but was dead, 
and am alive for evermore, and have the keys 
of hell and death i :" and thus of the quis 
passus est, " Who it was that suffered." 

VI. Now for whom suffered He all this? 
Even for none other than sinful men ; for 
Christ suffered in the place of sinners, and 
with sinners, to shew that He suffered for 

h Matt, xxviii. iS. i Rev i ij i8 I 


O ( 


sinners. Learn, O man, to hate sin, which 
was so heinous : and as often as thou art at 
leisure, to meditate of the Passion of Jesus 
Christ the Son of God, which thou shouldest 
daily do ; for it is better, saith one, than thy 
fasting with bread and water : so often, I say, 
as thou dost meditate of His Passion, call to 
mind, as the greatness of thy sins, so also the 
greatness of His love. Who died for thy sins, 
that as in the one thou mayest bewail thy 
own wickedness, so in the other thou mayest 
acknowledge His bounty and mercy towards 
thee, with that of the Prophet, " Blessed is 
the man to whom the Lord imputeth not bis 

But of whom suffered He all this injury? 
Even of His own kindred and acquaintance, 
the people of the Jews. After all His miracles 
and works of mercy done amongst them, in 
curing their sick, cleansing their lepers, and 
healing all that came unto Him ; after His 
feeding so many hungry people in the wilder- 
ness, teaching so many the way to salvation 

k Psalm xxxii. 

O C 

D O 


that came to hear Him, now they rewarded 
His pains and travail with opprobrious con- 
tumeUes, His unspeakable mercy with bitter 
hatred, never leaving Him until they bring 

■ Him to the death of the cross. Thus He 
'. suffered, not of strangers and foreigners, but 

of His own neighbours ; yea, His own bre- 
thren, as Himself calleth them, whom He 
I calleth children to Godl. 

VIII. Four things there are which we 
should meditate upon concerning the Passion 
of our Saviour Christ. 

First, for imitation ; calling to mind His 

patient suffering, we should not abhor suffer- 

i i ing, or murmur against tribulations, seeing He 

[i suffered so great things as He did, for the 

members ought to conform themselves to their 

■ Head. 

Secondarily, for compassion ; we ought to 

consider with grief of mind that our sins were 

; the cause of all this, and therefore we should 

truly repent us of them, and true repentance 

appeareth in the reformation of life. 

1 Matt. XV. 26. 

J) o 

o c 


Thirdly, for admiration, when we call to 
mind. Who, for whom, and what He suf- 

Fourthly, for resolution, that is, " to give 
our bodies," as the Apostle speaketh, " a 
sacrifice to serve Him, Who hath given Him- 
self a sacrifice to save us; and so we have 
by His Passion, imitation to direct, compassion 
to unite, admiration to stir up, resolution to 
perfect our Christian love and duty towards 

To go forward and to leave all the indig- 
nities offered Him in the judgment-hall. His 
scourging, crowning with thorns, bufi^etting, 
spitting upon, bearing His cross, and the like : 
now the greedy soldiers begin to spoil Him 
of His garments, exposing His Sacred Body 
all naked unto the sharp and cold air, which 
cruelty was not wont to be offered, but to 
abject persons. Then begin they to fasten 
Him to the cross, racking and straining His 
hands and feet further than naturally they 
would extend : so cruelly are all parts of His 
Body stretched, that the beholders might tell 

o c 

o o 


His bones, according to that, " they told all 
My bones°i." Here is He fastened unto the 
cross with nails at the hands and feet, " they 
digged My hands and feet." Inexplicable was 
this suffering, the nails piercing those places 
where the sinews meet together, the poize of 
His Body every moment increasing the pain. 
Now they oflfered Him vinegar mingled with 
gall, according to that, " They gave Me gall 
to eat, and vinegar to drink." Oh how mildly 
did He suffer all this ! How should we be 
content to leave earthly things, seeing Him 
stripped and spoiled of His clothing ! how 
should we crucify the flesh, and the concu- 
piscence thereof, when we remember His spare 
flesh to be fastened to the cross ! See we here 
Abel killed of His brother ; the serpent Hfted 
up to heal all that were stung. " O most 
loving Saviour," saith St. Austin", " that which 
the sinner deserveth, the innocent suffereth." 
" Remember, O Christian soul," saith Anselme 
in his Meditations, " that thou wert a captive, 
but thou art freed : that thou were banished, 

m Psalm xxii. i6, 17. n August. Med. 7. 

) .. ^ o 

o ^c 


but art brought home ; that thou wert lost, 
but art restored ; that thou wert dead, but art 
aUve. It was a mercy that thou wert His 
work, but it is a greater mercy thou art His 
price : it was much to take Adam from the 
earth, and bring him to the joys of Paradise : 
but it was more to take man from the pit 
of destruction, and bring him to the joys of 
Heaven. To proceed. 

X. A superscription is written by Pilate 
upon the cross, " Jesus of Nazareth, King of 
the Jewso." Pilate, although ignorant, com- 
mended Christ in this superscription in three 
things. First, for the remission of sins, in 
that he wrote, " Jesus." Secondly, for the 
bestowing of grace, in that he said, " of Na- 
zareth." Thirdly, for His power, in that he 
called Him " King of the Jews :" and this is 
written in three tongues, for that of all sorts 
coming unto the feast, every tongue might 
confess Jesus the Son of God. 

It is written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin ; 
in Hebrew, for the Jews, who gloried in the 

o John xix. 19, 

o -c 

3 Q 


Law ; in Greek, for the Grecians, who gloried 

in wisdom ; and in Latin, for the Romans, 

who most gloried in dominion and power : as 

if Pilate should have said ; This is the King 

I of all religion, having reference to the He- 

j brews ; of all wisdom, having reference to the 

! Greeks ; of aU power, having reference to the 

j Romans. 

" And these three sorts," saith St. Austin, 

" may challenge unto them the dignity of the 

cross, to wit, all devout and rehgious, rich or 

> poor, signified by the Hebrews ; all wise, who 

i are noted by the Greeks ; aU mighty, who are 

I resembled by the Latins. So then, the reli- 

i gion, the wisdom, the power of the world, con- 

ri fess Christ their King, Jews and Gentiles." 

[ XL And this triumphant title or super- 

I scription is written in His death to shew that 

for all His suffering death. He lost not His 

kingdom. The Jews saw it to their shame, 

and therefore would have had it altered, which 

Pilate refused, saying, " That which I have 

written, I have written P :" it is true, I will not 

p John six. 22. 

:P O 

o ' 


alter it : and Pilate in the end found it true 
indeed, to the terror of his wretched con- 
science, who having heard of the soldiers the 
verity of the Resurrection, lived in continual 
anguish, until at last, after disgrace received 
of the Romans, he came to a desperate end by 
casting himself away, as histories mention. 

XII. While this was doing they did not 
spare to reproach Him, and this was done 
by many : first, by them that sat by and 
watched Him ; secondarily, by some of the 
high-priests that came to mock Him ; thirdly, 
by those that passed by, and wagged their 
heads at Him ; fourthly, by one of the thieves 
that was crucified with Him. St. Matthew 
saith, they " reviled Himq :" St. Luke men- 
tioneth one only. " It seemeth," saith St. 
Austin, " that both of them began to revile 
Him, of which St. Matthew speaketh ; but one 
perceiving the heavens troubled, and other 
signs, moved with remorse desisted, and then 
only one of them, according to St, Luke, 
reviled Him"*." 

q Matt, xxvii. 44. r Luke xxiii. 39, 40. 

O Cj 

) o 

liEARN TO LIVE. 369 

XIII. Now they begin to repeat the words 
of the false witnesses : " Thou couldest build 
the temple if it were destroyed s— If Thou be 
the Son of God, save Thyself*." " No," saith 
Bede, " if Thou be the Son of God ?" nay, 
because He was the elected of God, He would 
not come down, for therefore came He into 
the world. Believe ye Him rising from the 
sepulchre, which is more than descending 
from the cross. 

The other malefactor saith unto Him, " Re- 
member me when Thou comest into Thy king- 
dom." What kingdom was this ? Surely no 
temporal kingdom : " in Thy kingdom," that 
iSj a better kingdom than any kingdom here 
beneath, or that which Tiberius now enjoyeth. 
Great was the faith of this thief : for neither 
the fear of the Jews now present, nor the 
sharpness of his own pain, the blasphemy of 
his feUow, the flight of the Disciples, the ap- 
parent infirmity of Christ's flesh, made him 
any way to waver, but first he acknowledgeth 
Christ to be a Lord ; secondly, he prayeth to 

8 Matt, xxvii, 40. t Mark zv. 29, 30. 





Him, and therefore he acknowledgeth Him to 
be of power ; thirdly, he acknowledgeth Him 
to have a kingdom. This thief could help 
himself but in two things, his heart and his 
tongue, which he doth ; with his heart he 
beUeveth, with his tongue he maketh con- 
fession of Christ his Saviour. 

XIV. And now behold we our Redeemer 
yielding up His life for the sins of the world. 
Let us consider awhile His seven last words 
uttered upon the cross, which by some are 
divided into eight. Two of these He spake 
for sinners : " Father, forgive them ;" and, 
" Thou shalt be with Me in Paradise." Two 
for the godly : " Woman, behold thy Son ;" 
and to the same Disciple, " Behold thy Mo- 
ther." Two for the world : " I thirst : It is 
finished." Two for Himself: " My God, My 
God, why hast Thou forsaken Me ?" and, 
" Father, into Thy hands I commend My 

XV. The first of these was spoken in the 
act of His crucifying ; when framing Himself 
unto the cross, He saith, " Father, forgive 

O c 

3— — O 


them, they know not what they do :" good 
to Me, but hurt to themselves : and so it is 
with them that hurt others, they know not 
what punishment they bring to themselves, 
and what crown and garland to them whom 
they think they most hurt : " They know not 
what they do." He prayeth not so much for 
them who did know, or ought to have known 
Him to be the true Messias, as for the lay 
and illiterate people, who of a blind zeal did 
they knew not what. What greater miracle 
than this loving prayer. Here was a word 
of all patience and piety, full of love and 
unspeakable sweetness. They say, " His blood 
be upon us," and He prays that it be not 
upon them, " Father, forgive them :" even 
now pierced with nails, crowned with thorns, 
laden with scoffs and reproaches, and yet here 
amongst all, a " Father, forgive them." And 
it was not without a mystery that He said, 
" Father, forgive them." By all this we learn 
to bear the greatest injuries of the world, and 
to pray withal for our very enemies. What 
should dust and ashes take upon it to revenge, 
O — o 

o o 


when the Lord of Heaven and earth so meekly 
endureth all ! What did the world ever see 
more patient, more charitable than the Son 
of God ! " Father, forgive them ;" pitying 
those that persecuted Him. 

XVI. The second word was spoken to the 
penitent thief, " Thou shalt be with Me in 
Paradise ;" which we understand not to be 
spoken of that earthly Paradise, from which 
Adam was expulsed, but of that imperial place 
whither St. Paul was taken up, where the 
•Saints and Angels are above in glory. By 
this saying comfort is given to them that re- 
pent them of their sins, and call for mercy 
upon Christ crucified. Behold how bountiful 
Christ is ! He gives a thief Paradise, that 
doth but ask it of Him. Here one worthy 
of punishment, and worthy to sufi^er death by 
his own confession, receiveth mercy at the 
last instant. But yet no man ought by this 
example, of set purpose to defer his conversion 
unto the last; the privilege of a few, much 
less of one, doth not infer a common law for 
all. Christ here gives mercy unto a thief, and 

o — o 

o o 


unto a thief at the last cast, to shew there is 
no place left for desperation : one example 
makes us bold, one finds mercy at the last, 
that none should despair ; and but one, that 
many should not presume. But see the faith 
of this thief that findeth mercy : a Disciple 
denieth his Master, this thief acknowledgeth 
Him^ : he seeth Christ hanging upon the 
cross as a man, and yet he prayeth unto 
Him as God : he accuseth his own defaults, 
reproveth the blasphemy of his fellow, he 
acknowledgeth Christ's innocency : the Jews 
that know the Law, crucify Him ; he seeth 
Him in all contempt, and yet he confesseth 
Him a Lord, a King. He beholds Him suf- 
fering death, and yet he makes request unto 
Him as the giver of life : they who had before 
seen Him raising the dead, waver : this man 
dying with Him, acknowledgeth the Resur- 
rection. " What fruit," saith St. Austin, " did 
Christ here reap of a dry tree ? Let any sinner 
shew this man's faith, and we dare shew the 
remission of his sins : he had before stolen 

u Euseb. Emiss. de Beat. Latron. 

o o 

o o 


earthly things, but now steals Heaven. O ad- 
mirable conversion ! that which we should take 
example of is an example of comfort, of mercy, 
of hope, of forgiveness, of confessing our sins, 
and with steadfast faithfulness of acknowledg- 
ing the Son of God, and craving mercy to be 
remembered of Him in His kingdom. Last 
of all, so to live, that in the hour of death we 
may hear that said unto us by Christ, '• This 
day shalt thou be with Me in Paradise." 

XVn. The third word was, when He said 
unto His blessed Mother, " Woman, behold 
thy Son ;" and to consider these two together. 
He said unto the same Disciple, " Behold 
thy Mother !" as if He should say unto the 
blessed Virgin, hitherto have I obeyed thee, 
and cared for thee as a Son, from henceforth 
in My stead I wiU leave thee a Disciple. Unto 
the Disciple John He saith, as it were, Thou 
hast done Me service as a good servant, now 
do it where I wiU thee ; behold her to whom 
thou shalt perform obedience and care, as the 
son to his mother. " And thus Christ, a Vir- 
gin," saith St. Jerome, " commits His Virgin J 

o o 

0- o 


Mother to a virgin Disciple^." This third word 
is a word of pity and care ; for to see Him now 
in such dolors and pains to take care for His 
Mother, was a token of much love, whereby 
He sheweth us to help our parents and do 
them good what in the world we can. But 
what a chEinge doth the blessed Virgin make, 
who hath for the Lord, the servant : for the 
Master, the man : for the Son of God, a son 
of Zebedee ? This change could not but grieve 
her, and pierce, as Simeon had before said, 
her very heart ^. " Woman, behold thy son ;" 
not naming her mother, which very name mo- 
ther, might have increased her grief, behold- 
ing the Passion and departure of so dear a 
Son, and might move her motherly mind to 
more and more sorrow. The Son crucified 
above, the mother mourning beneath ; His 
wounds woimded her heart. His piercing was 
her piercing, every stroke of the nail struck 
through her breast : aU this while not a word 
is mentioned ; weeping would not suffer her 
to speak, who at any occasion spake seldom ; 

r Hieron. con. Jovinian. w Luke U. 3J. 

o o 

o c 


the longest speech she used, that we read of, 
was her " Magnificat," her devotionate speech 
to God. 

On the other side, O loving disciple, be- 
loved of the Lord of love, thou art now left 
for a time, but never cease to mention love, 
or write of love ! Jonathan and David, Jacob 
and Benjamin, wept at parting, and so may 
you it followeth, 

XVIII. From the sixth hour there was 
darkness unto the ninth, the Sun of righteous- 
ness suiFereth eclipse, the visible sun, or the 
most clear light of the world hideth his beams, 
as not able to behold the Lord of Heaven and 
earth suffering : all creatures seem to suffer 
with Him, the earth trembleth, the heavens 
are all in black, as in mourning manner. The 
graves open, the rocks or stones cleave asunder, 
the whole frame of nature is disquieted, when 
as now the God of nature suffered. What a 
solemn and doleful time was this ! some strike 
their breasts, others stand wondering. The 
Centurion saith, as it were hfting up his hands 
to Heaven, " Surely this was the Son of God !" 

o o 

o o 


XIX. The fourth word was about the ninth 
hour, when He cried, " Eh, Eh, lama sabac- 
thani ? My God, My God, why hast Thou for- 
saken Me ?" which for that He spake in the 
Hebrew, some standing by and hearing this, 
said, " He calleth for Ehas." These, accord- 
ing to St. Jerome, were the Roman soldiers, 
who understood not the Hebrew, or perad- 
venture some of the Jews themselves, who by 
reason of the noise, could not well discern 
what was spoken. The doubling of the voice 
sheweth His double nature ; His Deity spake 
not this, which was impassible. Like as the 
Sun shining upon the wood, the axe cutteth 
the wood, but the Sun remaineth inviolable. 
His humanity spake this, which suffered and 
spake at this time as human nature is wont to 
speak when it thinks itself forsaken : not that 
the Son of God was any way doubtful of Di- 
vine assistance, but to shew how truly He 
bare upon Him man's infirmity, sin only ex- 
cepted, which thinks itself forsaken in times 
of grief. Here we are moved to suffer with 
Christ, beholding insensible creatures them- 

o o 

o o 


selves to suffer with Him. St. Ambrose saith, 
" He sorrowed for me Who had nothing for 
Himself to sorrow. Rational affection cried, 
" My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken 
Me ?" Sensitive affliction cried the same : and 
yet in Christ a voice not of the least diffidence, 
or so much of complaint as of admiration. Be- 
hold, O man, what I suffer for thee ! behold 
the punishments wherewith I am afflicted ! and 
when thou beholdest the outward man, think 
also that the inward man is partaker of the 
sorrow and suffering wherewith I am pierced, 
finding the ungratefulness of thee towards Me, 
suffering for thy sins. 

Here we learn in times of extremity to offer 
unto God our sorrowful sighs and supphca- 
tions ; and though we seem to the eye of the 
world to be forsaken, yet we may take com- 
fort in His mercy, " who is near unto all them 
that call upon Him," as the Prophet speaketh : 
yea then, when they pour out faithfully their 
complaints before Him. 

XX. The fifth word was, when Jesus knew 
that all things were now accomplishing which 

O— — — o 

) o 


were spoken of Him, this remained, " They 
gave Me vinegar to drink :" He saith, " I 
thirst ; that the Scripture might be fulfilled 
which was written of Him, They gave Me 
vinegar to drink ^." When it is said, " that 
the Scripture might be fulfilled," we do not 
understand this causatively, but consequently, 
as the schoolmen speak : for Christ did not 
this therefore, because the Scripture had 
spoken it, but therefore the Scripture spoke 
it, because Christ in time should do it. When 
He saith, " I thirst," what was this thirst ? 
Natural, caused by the emanation of His blood, 
together with the extremities of His sorrows ; 
which in part also is true, for His blood ex- 
hausted, extremity of thirst followed : but there 
was withal in Christ a thirst supernatural ; 
and this thirst was the salvation of souls 
wherewith He laboured, as with a most vehe- 
ment thirst or desire. This thirst of Christ 
was our health, our joy ; " O good Jesus," 
saith St. Bernard, " Thy thirst was my sal- 

z Psalm Ix!z. ai. 

) o 

o c 


XXI. And here somewhat is added to His 
suffering ; for when these men had hurt Him 
so much, that they could almost hurt Him no 
longer, they give Him sour wine upon a bunch 
of hyssop, and bitter herbs mixed with myrrh 
and gall, such as they had given Him to drink, 
before His lifting up to the cross : here they 
deny that unto the Son of God, which they 
were wont to grant to the greatest malefactors, 
giving them at these times wine to drink ; but 
Christ hath no other but vinegar and gall. 
Behold what a supper they gave our Lord, 
for it was now supper-time; here was the 
banquet ; our sins gave Him gall to eat and 
vinegar to drink. O miserable men that we 
are to seek delicates ! Here are we taught to 
drink with Christ the wine of devotion mixed 
with myrrh, the mortification of the flesh ; and 
gall, the compunction of the spirit. On the 
other side, we must take heed that we give 
not Christ thirsting for our salvation, vinegar 
mixed with gall, as these men did, that is, an 
evil and sinful life, which is vinegar mixed 
with the gall of scandalous conversation. 

o -c 



XXII. The sixth word was when He said, 
" It is finished ;" that is. All whatsoever was 
spoken of My suffering is now complete ; the 
honour of My Father, the good of the faithful, 
all that I should do concerning My obedience 
to His will, who gave Me this work to accom- 
plish. " It is finished :" nothing remaineth 
in this suffering, but My dying, and now I 
die. This our Saviour spake, as having fought 
a good fight, and finished His course : this He 
spake as one having undertaken a journey, 
and now gone through many passages, at His 
journey's end He saith, " It is finished :" first, 
lifting up His eyes to Heaven, " Father, Thy 
will :" then beholding men upon the earth, 
faithful men, your health : then, respecting 
the breaking of the serpent's head, Satan, the 
vanquishing of thy power : " It is finished." 
O happy voice of the Son of Gk)d ! 

XXIII. The seventh word was, " Father, 
into Thy hands I commend My Spirit." St. 
Luke saith, that He cried this with a loud 
voice. Some of the ancient Fathers think our 
Saviour was now meditating upon the one and 

o o 

o o 


thirtieth Psalm ; and coming unto those words 
in the Psalm, He uttered them with an audible 
voice, " Into Thy hands I commend My Spi- 
rit," and so gave up the ghost. This was 
now the ninth hour of the day, when the sun 
was darkened, the earth shook, the graves 
opened, as the Evangelists shew. At this 
hour Adam sinned : the same hour of the 
day wherein Adam sinned, Christ died : by 
dying, Christ opened the gate of Paradise, 
which Adam by sinning had shut up against 
him and His. Adam in the garden lost his 
life, and Christ in the garden restored life, 
when He yielded Himself with these words 
unto His Father, " Into Thy hands I com- 
mend My Spirit." These words being uttered. 
He gave up the ghost. His eyes closed. His 
countenance pale. His head bended down : 
Heaven nor earth ever saw such a sight, the 
God of life, the Author of hfe, and Life itself 
becomes dead. 

In this word we may consider many things ; 
as first, that our departing souls should be 
commended into the hands of our heavenly 

O ■ c 

D O 


Father : secondarily, somewhat we have here 
for the strengthening of our faith, Christ 
bending down His head, uttered these words, 
not of constraint, but voluntarily : whoever 
lay down to sleep so peaceably as Christ did, 
when He gave up the ghost ? men when they 
are dying, are scarce able to breathe : at 
this time Christ speaketh with a loud voice, 
" Father, into Thy hands I commend My 
Spirit." We see what Christ's example doth 
teach us to do, in commending our departing 
souls into the hands of God ; how at the hour 
of His death He prayed, He wept, and spake 
unto His heavenly Father. 

And here also may the Christian man enter 
into a large field of meditation upon many 
things together. "We were more insensible 
than the senseless creatures, if we should not 
be moved with the Passion of our Lord, 
Whose death was our life : consider we how 
great things the Son of God hath done for 
us, and suffered for our Redemption : consider 
we how great things they were which He 
suffered : how great His sorrows were which 

D O 

o — ^ c 


shewed the greatness of His love : how great 
His injuries were, when He was falsely accused, 
mocked, spitted upon, bufFetted, whipped, 
crowned with thorns, bereft of His clothes, 
burdened with His cross, pierced with nails, 
lanced with a spear, and so died. 

When " Joseph said unto his brethren, I am 
Joseph whom you sold into Egypt," they were 
so astonished they had not a word to say". 
When Christ shall say, " I am your brother, 
I am He Whom ye crucified," how shall they 
be confounded that crucified Him ! But what 
joy shall they have who believe on Him ! 
Up, O Christian soul, and with the dove make 
thy nest in the holes of this rock ! Behold 
the wounds of thy Saviour ! Come to this 
ark, whither all creatures repair to save them- 
selves. Stand and behold a little with the 
devout women, the Body of thy Saviour upon 
the cross, see Him afflicted from top to toe : 
see Him wounded in the head to heal our vain 
imaginations : see Him wounded in the hands 
to heal our evil actions : see Him wounded in 

X Gen. xlv. 3. 

o c 

D O 


the heart to cure our vain thoughts : see His 
\ es shut up which did enlighten the world ; 
I see them shut, that thy eyes might be turned 
away from beholding vanity : see those ears 
which were wont to hear the joyful hymn of 
the Cherubims, " Holy, Holy, HolyY," now 
have heard a multitude of reproaches : see 
that countenance which was goodly to look 
upon, is spitted upon and buffetted. The 
blood of Abel cried Justice ! justice ! but the 
blood of Christ cried Mercy ! mercy ! O that 
we had hearts to meditate of the Passion of 
our Lord ! And three things there are that do 
offer themselves in this place to our best dis- 
posed meditation, justice in God, sin in man, 
love in Christ. There is nothing of which we 
ought more to think, more to speak, more 
to read, or more to meditate, than of this ; 
because the remembrance hereof appertaineth 
to the salvation of our souls, increaseth faith, 
driveth away despair, giveth fortitude against 
the afflictions of the world, strengtheneth us 
against temptations, filleth the mind with joy, 

y Isaiah vi. 3. 



C C 

o c 


causeth a loathing of sin, and after a wonder- 
ful manner stirreth us all up to devotion. This 
our Saviour Christ Himself well thought upon, 
when He left so high a Sacrament so full of 
heavenly Mysteries, for the continual renew- 
ing in our hearts of this His most Blessed 
Passion. O sweet Jesus, should ever unthank- 
fulness of this love of Thine creep upon us, 
should not Thy precious blood soften our 
adamant hearts. Who hast delivered us from 
infinite miseries, purchased by Thy death ? O 
infinite goodness, and freely offered ! Thy- 
self hast offered Thyself unto Thy Father, a 
sacrifice for our sins : there is no burden 
heavier than sin, this hast Thou eased us of. 
O blessed Son of God, " while I live," saith 
the Prophet, " will I call upon the Lord, yea, 
as long as I have being." We wUl offer unto 
God the sacrifice of thanksgiving, and praise 
His name for ever and ever. 

And thus we meditate of the Passion of our 
Lord, Who suffered death to overcome death : 
of which St. Austin 2 mentioneth a double 

I Serm. de Nat. ili. et In Ps, xxxir. 

O C 

I — o 


cause ; the one, that Christ died for us to 
deliver us ; the other, that those whom He 
redeemed by His death He might teach, and 
by His example instruct : why did the Head 
suffer but to give the body an example ? Christ 
humbled Himself unto death, even unto the 
death of the cross : we ought also to humble 
ourselves, to be crucified unto the world, and 
the world ought to be crucified to us : unto 
Him were our sins imputed, unto us His right- 
eousness: He gave Himself a sacrifice to save us, 
and we give ourselves a sacrifice to serve Him. 
Let us go with the Blessed Virgin to Mount 
Calvary, and stand by awhile, beholding in 
mournful manner what is done : and when we 
have beheld until they have done crucifying 
the Son of God, then with Joseph and Nico- 
demus let us take down and anoint His cru- 
cified Body, with the sweetest perfumes of 
prayer and praise our hearts can yield, putting 
it in the new sepulchre of our holiest medita- 
tion. Of them who thus do, it may be said, 
as David said to those who brought him word 
they had honourably buried their master, 

) _.. o 

O ( 


Saul, " blessed are you of the Lord ; the Lord 
recompense you this mercy 2." The Lord re- 
compense them this devotion that thus do, 
and blessed be they of the Lord, who thus 
reverence the Lord of lords. 


How Christ's Resurrection from the dead, doth much 

strengthen our Christian faith, and ser^'e also 

for the instruction of our Christian lives. 

And now we come from Christ a lamb to 
Christ a lion ; from Christ a stone rejected of 
the builders, to Christ the chief comer- stone 
of all the building. In His Resurrection, 
behold we Him as a champion, returning from 
the spoils after so many labours and travails, 
now meet we Him with gratulations. Our 
David hath slain His ten thousand ^ ; our eagle 
is renewed ; our phcenix is revived ; our Jonas 
is come safe and sound from the belly of the 
whale ; our sun that went down in a ruddy 

taSam.ii. j. a i Sam. zviii. 7. 

O ( 

:) o 


cloud is risen again with glorious beams of 
light ; our grain of corn that was cast into 
the earth is sprung up and flourisheth ; our 
Joseph is delivered out of prison ; our Samson 
hath carried away the gates of His enemies ; 
our Spouse is come : the voice of the turtle is 
heard in our land ; Christ our Redeemer is 
risen from the dead. He is risen early, that 
was late in the evening laid in the sepulchre 
after His doleful Passion : " He is risen ! He is 
risen !" wherefore with the Prophet we say, 
" Sorrow may endure for a night, but joy 
Cometh in the morning^." 

Christ hastened His Resurrection that His 
Disciples might not too long dwell in sorrow ; 
He would that their mournful hearts should 
soon receive comfort. Christ rose early the 
third day, for to have lain longer might have 
bred doubt of His rising, to have rose sooner 
might have made doubt of His dying. Had 
only the sorrowful Apostles, or those women' 
that came mourning unto the sepulchre, the 
joy of the Resurrection ? No, this was the 

b Psalm XXX. J, 

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o — ■ c 


joy of thousand thousands, which might say 
with David, " This is the day of the Lord, we 
will rejoice and be glad in it"." Look we 
unto the Passion before mentioned, there we 
see weeping and wailing, sorrow and suffering 
on every side ; the blessed Virgin, the Disci- 
ples full of heaviness ; now all is turned into 
joy : the Angel appeareth in white, the 
women run and tell the Disciples '^ they scarce 
believe either the Angels, or one another for 


IL Wherefore, O faithful Christian man, 
" Rejoice in the Lord," yea, saith the Apostle, 
" again I say, rejoice^" rejoice in the Resur- 
rection of thy Saviour, for many are the bene- 
fits and fruits that arise from this grain of seed 
falling into the ground, and forthwith spring 
up again. 

He humbled Himself unto death ; did God 
leave Him ? No, He is highly exalted, and the 
glory of the Head is the body's hope. Now is 
thy Lord returned from the battle, nay, from 
the conquest over the devil, sin, hell and death : 

c Psalm cxviii. 24. d John xx. 2, 3, 4. e Phil. iv. 4. 

O C 



" thanks be unto God, that hath given us the 
victory through Jesus Christ our Lord^." Be- 
lieve that His Resurrection was the cause of thy 
Resurrection, for He which raised Christ from 
the dead, shall also raise these our mortal 
bodies by His Spirit that dwelleth in us. If 
thou consider this well, thou shalt have conso- 
lation against all fear and dread of death, for 
thou mayest say, " I know that my Redeemer 
liveth." Again, " I wiU lay me down to sleep, 
and take my rest, for the Lord maketh me 
to dwell in. safety." Because this was so 
behoveful a point for the stay of our Christian 
faith, Christ appeared so often unto His Apo- 
stles after His Resurrection, communed with 
them as at other times, so then especially, 
when their hearts did burn within them as He 
opened the Scriptures?, shewing them the 
verity of His Resurrection. The Apostles, 
whose charge was to teach glad tidings unto 
the world, the first tidings they taught, was 
the doctrine of the Resurrection li. 

f I Cor. XV. S7. g Luke xxiv. 32. 

1 h Acts ii. 24, 3i ; iii. a6 ; iv. 33. 

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II. The Evangelists do most diligently set 
forth unto us the Resurrection of Christ, as a 
thing profitable and joyful to all faithful be- 
lievers, for in the Resurrection we see how 
Christ is exalted, and what hope we have in 
Him. This they lay down with many circum- 
stances, both by testimonies before and after : 
before, in that He had told His Disciples He 
must die, and rise again i : after, in that He was 
conversant amongst them forty days, walked 
in the way with two of them, communing of 
the things that were done at Jerusalem : and 
their understanding is opened. 

HI. The women come unto the sepulchre, 
and view every place thoroughly ; they find 
the stone rolled away, the linen clothes remain- 
ing ; a sign His Body was not taken away, but 
risen, for these were together laid with His 
Body in the sepulchre : the Body gone, the 
Angels testify " He is risen," what say the sol- 
diers to this? First, they confess a truth, 
afterwards corrupted with money, they give out 
His Disciples had stolen away the Body while 

i Matt. xvi. 3i. 

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they were asleep. If they were asleep, how 
saw they the Disciples steal away the Body ? 
If they were not asleep, how could a few weak 
fishermen take away the Body from a band or 
company of armed soldiers ? But let them 
confess the truth, as they did before when they 
told " unto the High Priest all the things that 
were done''/' that is, that He was risen from 
the dead indeed : and so the virtue is in- 
vincible, and the joy great of the Resurrection. 
We see a desire and love to Christ in Peter 
and John, for why ? they run to the sepulchre ^ ; 
affection makes us diligent ; the women come 
with sweet odours to anoint the Body, but 
find Him not, " He is risen." INIary elsewhere 
Cometh near her Lord, Christ saith unto her, 
"Woman, touch Me not"i :" not but that Christ 
had a body tangible after His Resurrection, but 
Mary " touch Me not," do not so much affect 
My Presence here on earth, as My Presence in 
Heaven. By this we learn to know and honour 
Christ, as " He is risen, and sitteth at the right 
hand ofGod above." St. Paul writing to Timothy 

k MaU. zxviii. ii. 1 Juhn xx. 4, m John xx. 17. 


n- — c 


saith, MvT]fi6v(Vf 'itjaovv Xpicrrov fyrjytpfjifvov (k 
vfKpav, " Remember that Jesus Christ is risen 
from the dead"." When the teacher gives his 
scholar many lessons, if he give him one 
amongst the rest, with a memento, " remember 
this," he thinks that of all other of most 
especial regard, and worthy of the best ob- 
servation : and it seeraeth the Apostle so 
accounted of the Resurrection : for what is 
there more necessary for our Christian medi- 
tation, than here to call to mind, that it was 
He who did redeem Israel ? that as He rose 
powerfully in Himself, so also did He in those 
that believe on Him : that He rose " accord- 
ing to the Scriptures o," that He rose by 
way of equity ; for first. He humbled Himself, 
and then God exalted Him, giving Him a 
name above all names ; that He rose by way 
of power, for being without sin, death could 
not hold Him ; for it was impossible He should 
be holden of death P. 

V. He Whom John not long before had 
seen as a sacrifice offered upon the cross, 

n 3 Tim. U. 8. o i Cor. xv. 4. p Acts ii. 34. 

O C 

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when He was, as the Prophet speaketh, with- 
out form to look uponq, now he seeth eifter 
another manner : then amongst thieves, now 
walking amongst the seven candlesticks r ; then 
clothed in purple by way of derision, now 
clothed as the sun ; then called a King by 
those that reproached Him, now called the King 
of kings by them that honour Him : where- 
fore as we have seen Him in His humility, so 
with John let us also see Him in His glory. 
As we have seen Him fighting for us in His 
Passion, so let us also behold Him triumphing 
for us in His Resurrection ; for all was for us. 
In the Passion and Resurrection of Christ our 
Saviour consisteth the sum of all our happi- 
ness ; " He died for our sins, and rose again for 
our justifications ;" unless He had died, we had 
not been delivered from sin, and consequently 
from death ; unless He had rose from the 
dead, we had not received the comfort of rising 
again from the dead : His Passion removed 
away that which was evil. His Resurrection 
brought unto us that which was good. As in 

q Isai. liii. 2. r Apoc. i. 13, 14. s Bom. iv. aj. 

;0- ■ O 

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these two we have a double benefit, so have 
we a double example : in His Passion, an ex- 
ample of suffering, in His Resurrection of 
hope, when we have suffered. Which doth 
shew in us two lives, the one in the flesh 
laborious, which we must endure ; the other, 
when we are dehvered from the flesh, which 
we must hope. 

VI. Now we must not only acknowledge 
with the mouth, or believe in the heart this 
sacred truth of the Resurrection, but we must 
also be raised up to newness of life : for thus 
much doth the Holy Ghost require of us in 
believing the Resurrection. " We are," saith 
the Apostle, " buried with Him by Baptism 
into death : that like as Christ was raised 
from the dead by the glory of the Father, so 
also we should walk in newness of life* ;" and 
this is the similitude which we do carry of 
His Resurrection. 

This is to set our affection on heavenly 
things, or " things that are above, where 
Christ sitteth at the right hand of God^:" 

t Kom. vi. 4. u Col. iii. i. 

o . c 

D O 


and this is the third thing that we should 
apply ourselves unto in believing the Resur- 
rection from the dead ; that is, first to rise 
with Him from the death of sin, and conse- 
quently to be raised by Him unto a hope of 
the Resurrection to eternal life. 

VH. It is wonderful to consider with how 
many strange enemies Christ had to do at 
once ; with the world, and the prince of the 
world, with death, and sin the cause of death. 
Who would have thought that one sheep 
should have been able to withstand so many 
wolves ? But yet hear the triumphant voice of 
the Conqueror, " Death, where is thy sting ? 
Hell, where is thy victory ? The sting of death 
is sin; and the strength of sin is the Law'." 
The Apostle like a valiant champion goes 
forth, and offers a challenge and combat to I 
all these, or any of them : " Who shall lay any i 
thing to the charge of God's chosen ?" If 1 
Satan say, that will I, because they have fol- ! 
lowed the ways of ungodliness ; if the world 
say, I will lay to their charge the many vani- 

V I Cor. XV. SS, s6. ! 

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; ties they received of me ; if the Law say, I 
; will indite them, because of transgression ; if 
death say, I will arrest them by reason of 
; sin ; St. Paul answered them all with a short 
reply, "Jesus Christ is dead^''; yea, rather, 
He is risen from the dead ;" as if He would 
say, that same rising of Christ from the dead, 
, hath bereft you all of all your force, and now 
; all your pleas are frustrate. Nay, how is the 
. poor captive comforted, when the judge him- 
self shall say. Who shall detain this man ? I 
have paid his ransom. 

VHI. What a joyous thing is it now to be 

strengthened in the faith of the Resurrection ! 

; First, in regard of the calamities of this life ; 

for what shall dismay us, seeing the members 

hope to be joined with the Head .'' Secondly, 

[ though this life be transitory and troublesome, 

: yet Daniel shall be delivered out of the lion's 

den : the dove shall return to the ark with 

a branch of olive, when once the flood and 

I waters are fallen : Jeremiah shall come out of 

j the pit whereinto he is cast of his enemies : 

w Rom. viii. 34. 

o — — o 

D ■ O 


our noble David having gotten the victory, is 
gone triumphantly to reign in Jerusalem, we 
all His people and army tracing and training 
after Him. We were detained and held as 
captives of cruel enemies, but by Christ the 
enemies are vanquished, and we dehvered. 
How are we delivered but by the Son of God? 
Was it not His suffering only that was, as 1 
hath been said, the removing of evil ? Himself 
saith, " What profit is there in My blood, if I 
go down to corruption ?" As if He would tell 
us there were something adjoining hereunto, 
to make His suffering glorious and beneficial 
unto others, and this was His Resurrection. 

IX. Every effect naturally doth shew its 
cause. The Resurrection was the effect of 
His Deity, and therefore gave evident testi- 
mony He was God. Again, His Resurrection 
confirmeth our faith ; for so doth St. Paul 
reason against the pseudo-apostoli, " If the 
dead rise not, then is not Christ risen ; if 
Christ be not risen, then where is our behev- 
ing*?" But Christ is risen, therefore there 

I X I Cor. XV. 13, 14. 

O —I 

o c 


is a Resurrection. The head doth not rise 
without the body ; the Head is risen, the body 
therefore shall rise. So the Resurrection of 
Christ is the cause of our Resurrection, and 
He rising, we all rise. 

" The Lord is King," saith the Prophet ; 
" let the earth rejoice, and the isles be glad 
thereof." The firstfruits being sanctified, all 
the other fruits are hallowed unto the Lord. 
" Thomas, bring hither thy hand, and feel the 
print of the nails : blessed are those that have 
not seen, and yet do believe Y." " That which 
befell Christ's body," saith St. Austin, " the third 
day, shall befall our bodies in the last day." 

X. Four sorts were there which beheld and 
heard the whole manner of our Saviour's 
Passion and Resurrection. The first were a 
kind of men who only were present as spec- 
tators, hearing and seeing what was done 
without further observation ; and these were 
many of the common people which following 
their own affairs, little respected that which 
was then a doing. 

y John XX. 27, 29. 

o c 



The second were the soldiers, who when 
they had watched the sepulchre, seen the 
Angel of the Lord, and the earthquake, as 
men amazed went forth into the city, shewing 
what had happened, yet by and by corrupted 
with money, did not stick to tell the con- 

The third were the high-priests and Phari- 
sees ; these altogether endeavouring to sup- 
press the rumour of the Resurrection, could 
in no case abide that any should so much as 
mention it. 

The fourth were the Disciples of Christ, 
and those believed on Him : to these did He 
appear, to these brought He great joy when 
they beheld Him, and communed with Him 
after He was risen. 

XI. After the same manner are there in the 
world four sorts that are diversely affected to- 
wards this article of the Resurrection. Some, 
as those of the common sort, receive neither 
joy nor sorrow, as if it did not appertain unto 
them to have care or respect to this principal 
point of their Christian belief : these have the 

3 O 


o c 


name of Christians, but little consider what- 
ever Christ did for them. Some there are of 
the second sort, which do believe that Christ 
is risen, they think of it, and speak of it, but 
they persevere not, for going away they are 
corrupted with the world, they speak the con- 
trary, by their works they deny that there is 
any Resurrection at all. These, like the sol- 
diers that kept the sepulchre, follow the fa- 
vour of the world, and are led from truth to 

O unhappy men, that for vile things of the 
world leave the joyful tidings they have heard 
and seen of the Resurrection ! Some there 
are who with the high-priests and Pharisees 
cannot endure the fame of Christ, or those 
that would set forth the honour of His Resur- 
rection. And of these what shall we say ? 
When they hear these happy tidings, they 
labour to draw the minds of men from the 
devotion thereof: these are the worst of all 
other. But some there are which with the 
Disciples rejoice, and never rest until they 
come unto the sepulchre, for love resteth not : 

o c 

o ■ o 


and these see it so as it is told them, and | 
Christ by faith appeareth unto them : they are 
assembled with the faithful, and not absent 
with Thomas, who by his absence had not 
with others at first the joy of the Resurrec- 
tion : they go not from the sepulchre, but 
are there with Mary weeping, until His grace 
speaks comfortably unto them : then they re- 
joice and say, " The Lord is risen indeed, and 
hath appeared unto us :" and these are those 
who have part in the first Resurrection, for on 
such the second death hath no power. This 
first Resurrection is to receive Jesus Christ in 
true faith, and to rise from sin by newness of 
life ; and these also shall one day have part 
in the second Resurrection, when they shall sit 
with Christ that is risen before, when they 
shall Uve with Him, and reign with Him in 
the kingdom of Heaven. " In the mean time 
Christ stiU inviteth them," saith St. Austin^, 
" to that life, where there is no defect, no 
death." The Angels say, " Why seek you the i 
Uving amongst the dead ?" If one seek a mine 

X August. Serm. de Temp. 114. 

[O- o 

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of gold in some place where no such thing is 
to be had, he which" well knoweth it to be so, 
doth he not say. Why doth this man dig and 
delve in vain ? His labour is but lost, he 
maketh a ditch whereinto he may descend, as 
for treasure here it is not. In like manner 
while we seek our felicity here, well we may 
dig and delve and endanger ourselves ; but 
here lieth no treasure, wherefore we must set 
our affection in Heaven, whither Christ is 
risen and gone before us. And now in the 
last place, to knit up both these together ; as 
in the Passion of Christ we may learn what 
we most suffer, so in His Resurrection what 
we most hope : in the one, that we must die ; 
in the other, that we shall arise from death. 
Now as there are two deaths, one of the body 
and another of the soul, so are there two 
Resurrections ; the one spoke of John v. 25, 
" All that are in the graves," &c. ; the other, 
Ephes. v. 19, "Arise, thou that sleepest :" 
this is to arise from sin, and this may be called 
the first Resurrection : and blessed are they 
that have part in the first Resurrection. 

o c 

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Of Christ's ascension into Heaven, and how many 
good instructions we learn thereby. 

Because the ascension of our Lord was 
after His travails, the farewell He took of the 
world, His doings and sayings at this time 
should have at least our Christian attention. 
St. Mark teUeth us that He was giving His 
Apostles their commission to " preach the 
Gospel to every creature^ ;" and teUing them 
that they should have power, as the working 
of miracles, and the like, to confirm this teach- 
ing by : "so after He had spoken this unto 
them He was received up into Heaven." St. 
Luke tells us, that He gathered them together, 
commanding them not to depart from Jeru- 
salem, but there to " wait for the promise of 
the Father, which, said He, you heard of 
Me^." And when He had spoken these things, 
" while He was even now, as the same Evan- 

a Markxvi. 15. b Acts i. 4. 

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gelist saith in another place blessing them, 
I He departed from them, and was carried up 
into Heaven," for a cloud took Him out of 
their sight, and they returned to Jerusalem 
from mount Olivet ; and when they were come 
into an upper chamber, " they all continued in 
prayer and supplication with the women, and 
Mary the mother of Jesus." 

n. Here we see a loving Master taking His 
leave of His loving family ; here is blessing 
and praying on both sides ; here is comforting 
and looking up to Heaven : though distance 
of place did separate them for a time, yet love 
should continue them as one for ever. The 
men of Ephesus wept abundantly when St. 
Paul departed from them, being chiefly sorry 
" for the words that he spake, that they should 
see his face no more '^." But two men in white 
apparel, or angels in men's form, ask the 
Apostles, " Why stand you gazing or looking 
up to Heaven ?" And they tell them, " This 
Jesus shall so come even as you have seen 
Him go into Heaven*^." 

Acts XX. 38. d Acts i, II. 

O- -c 

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When Elijah was taken up into Heaven, 
because his prayers had stood Israel in as 
good stead as all the horses and chariots did 
against the force of their enemies, the text 
saith, Elisha cried, " My father, my father, 
the chariot of Israel and the horsemen there- 
of : and he saw him no more^." The Apostles 
of our Lord, though silent for admiration, we 
may easily conceive their hearts cried, Our 
Saviour, our Saviour. At the very instant 
two ambassadors from the court of Heaven, 
to prevent doleful passions, tell them that 
thev shall so see Him come as they saw Him 
ascend, calling to mind what Himself had 
before told them, " I ascend to My Father, 
and to your Father." 

III. He that ever gave His Disciples divine 
instructions, ceased not at the last, even unto 
the very instant of His departure from them, 
to teach them still. And where doth Christ 
leave His Disciples but upon mount Olivet, 
where He had often prayed with them, and 
they with Him ; from thence He ascended. 

e 2 Kings ii. 12. 

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o o 


When we have done our devotions in this 
world, and done with the world ; when we 
have blessed our brethren by holy actions, as- 
sembled in prayer, given them good examples, 
continued amongst them in one accord : from 
mount Olivet our last devotion and prayers 
unto God should arise, or if prayers cannot 
be mentioned in words, the lifting up of our 
hands may suiEce, or if that fail, let our hearts 
be on high. " Our devotion and prayer is the 
mountain from which we ascend, and for God's 
sake," saith St. Bernard^, " let it not seem 
wearisome to abide long on this mountain ; let 
us raise up our minds and our hearts, and our 
hands unto Heaven, and let us ascend with 
our Lord ascending : let us " follow the Lamb 
whithersoever He goeth ;" let us follow Him 
suffering, by mortifying the flesh ; let us follow 
Him rising, by newness of life ; but most joy- 
fully of all, let us follow Him ascending, by 
setting our affections on heavenly things, or 
" things above ^." 

IV. How this Article of our Christian 

f Bernard. inAscens. Dom. g Col. iii. 2. 

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belief, " He ascended into Heaven," doth ap- 
pertain unto the stay of our Christian faith, 
is best perceived of faithful believers^ He hath 
carried our nature thither before us. As John 
the Baptist was His precursor on earth, so He 
is our Precursor in Heaven. " The death of 
Christ," saith St. Austin'", "is our vivification. 
His resurrection is our hope, but His ascen- 
sion is our glorification, when as now the 
Angels themselves might seem to have sung 
Christ with a psalm to Heaven, " Be Thou 
exalted Lord in Thine own strength." And 
His Apostles seeing Him ascended into glory, 
returned to Jerusalem with great joy, and 
there continually in the Temple did laud and 
praise Godi, because now sure faith hath 
shaken ofi" all scandalous and doubtful sorrow, 
remembering His words, " I go to prepare a 
place for you." 

How forcible testimonies are these ! Every 
one telling us what is the end of our Christian 
behef. " For as all other things in Christ were 
for us, He was born for us. He was given to 

h August, in Ascen, Dom. i Luke xxiv. 1$. 

10 o 

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US, SO for us also He ascended," saith St. 
Bernard. " Where the hody is, thither will 
the eagles also be gathered together :" we are 
by nature a noble kind of creature, and of a 
lofty spirit, naturally desirous to get higher 
and higher, and therefore we shew of Whose 
stock and lineage we are when we covet to 
ascend whither He is ascended, Who is gone 
before us. 

And no small comfort is it to have this 
assured, that howsoever we are kept down for 
a time, yet we shall one day ascend to the full 
accomplishment of our good desires. 

V, In the mean time what should we do 
but follow Him in Whom we ascend, in the 
sweet smelling savour of His perfumes ; know- 
ing that pride cannot ascend whither humility 
is gone ; that hatred cannot come whither 
love is ascended ; that vice cannot approach 
where virtue is exalted ; that impiety may not 
appear where holiness itself is seated ; and 
therefore to follow Him in humility, in love, 
in virtue, and in holiness, are as it were, the 
steps of ascending to come unto the place 

o c 

J — _ o 


whither He is gone before. It was once said 
unto man, Terra es, et in terram redibis^ : but 
now it is said. Earth thou art, and yet into 
Heaven shalt thou go : whither since thou art 
going, leave in any case those allurements, 
which not only stay thy course, but cast thee 
back to thy utter peril. 

VI. And here it is not amiss to call to mind 
some several virtues of our Saviour precedent 
unto His ascension ; as first, if ever that of 
Samuel spoken unto Saul, " Obedience is better 
than sacrifice," were verified, then most truly 
in this ascension of the Son of God. He was 
obedient unto His Father's will : we see after 
all His obedience, how He is exalted to Hea- 
ven, as if obedience were the way thither, 
" I have accomplished the work which Thou 
gavest Mel." 

Secondarily, we may consider His humility, 
according to that, " He which ascended, first 
descended'" : to shew, that humility also in 
going down to a lowly conceit of ourselves, 

k Gen. iii. 19. 1 John xvii. 4. 

m Eph. iv. 10. 

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O ^ c 


is the second step of following Him in His 

Thirdly, we may consider His patient suffer- 
ing, according unto that, " If we suffer with 
Him, we shall also reign with Him." 

Fourthly, we may call to mind how fami- 
liarly this loving Shepherd was conversant 
with His little flock until the very time that 
He left them ; to shew, that to pass our time, 
and to end our time in charitable and loving 
manner amongst men, is the way whereby 
we follow the Son of God ascending up into 

Last of all, pureness or sincerity of life and 
conversation, is a degree of ascending after 
Him. " If we will," saith St. Austin, " ascend 
with Christ, we must leave our faults, for with 
our Physician our faults ascend not." " Who 
ascendeth unto the hill of the Lord, but he 
that hath innocent hands and a pure heart" ?" 

VII. " We would be happy, I know it," 
saith St. Austino ; " but why seek we not the 
way to happiness ? Many there are that would 

n Psalm xxiv. 3, 4. o August, de Temp. 141. 

o o 



ascend, but few endeavour themselves to walk 
the way of ascending." Some with the sons of 
Zebedee would sit on the right and left hand 
in Christ's kingdom P, but they will not taste 
of Christ's bitter cup in His Passion. Others 
there are, which fearing they cannot ascend, 
have their whole hearts buried in the earth, 
where they are content to abide. A third sort 
there are which so load themselves with the 
care of this world, and are so heavy, that they 
never lift up their minds to Heaven ; but even 
as the serpent whose breast is upon the earth, 
there they abide and go no further : and sure 
a lamentable thing it is, that whereas Christ 
with so much labour, hath laid out a way for 
us, yet so few there are that follow Him in 
this way. 

O that we would mark, and marking keep 
the happy course of Christ's ascending ; for 
even in ascending many err : the Angel would 
ascend, but of an Angel he became a devil : 
man would ascend in Paradise, but from a 
happy creature he became miserable : both fell 

p Matt. XX. 21. 

D O 

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by affecting power and knowledge, and many 
follow this course. Now Christ hath taught 
us a true manner of ascending, as we have 
heard ; He first descended, and then ascended : 
He ascended the mount to pray and to teach n, 
He ascended the ass to weep, He ascended the 
Cross to suffer, and after all He ascended 
Heaven to reign in glory. These are the true 
degrees of ascending : first, we must ascend to 
prayer ; secondly, we must ascend the mount 
to learn the way to blessedness ; thirdly, we 
must ascend the mount to contemplate of glory, 
as He did when He went to be transfigured ; 
fourthly, we must ascend upon our carnal ap- 
petites, to weep for our sins ; fifthly, we must 
ascend unto the cross, to be crucified unto the 
world ; and so last of all, we shall ascend in 
good time, by the grace of God, into Heaven, 1 
to rejoice with Christ in glory. 

Vni. " To all this," saith St. Bernard, "may 
be annexed this short form of ascending :" 
first, we must ascend to our heart, that is, 
to the knowledge of ourselves : then in our 

q Matt. V. 1. Luke vi. t2. 

O- ( 

3 — O 


heart, that is, to acknowledge our own in- 
firmities : next, from our heart, that is, from 
the love of ourselves : and, last of all, above 
our heart, that is, to the love of Christ. What 
doth our Christian love on earth, when Christ 
our Head is in Heaven? "The Lord is my 
portion," saith David : if we love Christ, why 
are not our affections with Him in Heaven ? 
Delilah said unto Samson, " thou hast said 
thou lovest me : if it were so, thy mind would 
be with mer." For the Apostles, Christ was 
taken out of their sight, but not out of their 
hearts : by His corporal presence He departed 
from them, but for His Spiritual Presence He 
continued with them : and therefore as they in 
heart ascended with Him, so He still in spirit 
remained with them by this His Spiritual Pre- 
sence, which was and is ever the same. And 
here we may observe how Christ departed 
from His Apostles : first. He leadeth them out 
of the city, by way of application, from the 
concourse of sin ; secondly. He leadeth them 
to mount Olivet, a place of prayer ; thirdly, 

r Judg. xvi. ij. 

b — O 

o — o 


He blesseth them or endueth them with His 
grace at parting : this done He ascendeth. 

IX. Thus we see how Christ ascendeth up 
unto His Father, how though He left them as 
concerning His Bodily Presence, yet with His 
love, His grace, and His power, He was still 
with them. 

Concerning the mystery of His ascension^ it 
is very great and excellent ; the high and 
glorious King clothed with our nature, is 
entered into His royal palace. By this, we 
that are flesh and blood, have a comfortable 
and sure trust of our ascending up into Hea- 
ven, and therefore we find cause of joy in the 
meditation hereof for four reasons : first, that 
we have an Advocate now speaking for us at the 
right hand of God ; secondly, that where He 
is we shall be, " I will take you unto Myself;" 
thirdly, that as He hath taught us what to do, 
so also what to hope ; fourthly, that He hath 
left unto us a comfortable promise in the mean 
time, " I ascend unto My Father, and your 

X. And now as we have here many good 

o '- — o 

D ^ O 


instructions, so how our hope of ascending is 
confirmed we see, that nothing may be more 
joyfully thought upon than this, while we 
are in this mortal body of ours. Ezra and 
Nehemiah shew with how great desire the 
nation of the Jews were held towards the 
earthly Jerusalem, after they had been awhile 
in captivity s : with what desire should we be 
led of our heavenly Jerusalem, after our cap- 
tivity here in this world ! Assuredly, there is 
nothing that we can meditate of with more joy 
than of Christ's ascension into Heaven, to the 
right hand of His Father, where He sitteth, 
and shall both sit and reign for ever. In the 
old Law, the High Priest once a year entered 
the Holy of Holies ; " We have an High 
Priest," saith the Apostle, " that is entered 
into the Heavens, and there maketh interces- 
sion for ust." To conclude, from hence the 
faithful Christian may with St. Austin cheer- 
fully say, " Where my Portion reigneth, there 
hope I one day to reign," Amen. 

s Neh. i. 3. t Heb. vii. 2$. 

\p o 

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Of the coming down of the Holy Ghost, and how 

we should in all Christian manner entertain 

this divine Spirit our heavenly Teacher, 

to live holily. 

"It is expedient for you," saith Christ our 
Saviour unto His Apostles, " that I depart 
from you, for if I depart not, the Comforter, 
which is the Holy Ghost, will not come^." It 
is expedient that I depart from you : that I 
depart. No marvel though the Disciples' 
hearts at the word depart, were fuU of sorrow 
to hear of their Master's departure : it was 
grievous, but that this might be expedient 
unto them, they could not but wonder, and 
therefore Christ by and by telleth them how, 
" Unless I depart, the Comforter, which is the 
Holy Ghost, wuU not come." Christ is our 
agent in Heaven, the Holy Ghost is His agent 
in earth, a part of which agency is to bring 
consolations against the world's desolations : 

u John xvi. 7. 

o o 

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His Body is above, but His Spirit is beneath : 
our bodies are beneath, but our spirits are 
above : He sent His Spirit to us, we send our 
spirits to Him. 

" It is expedient," saith Christ, " that I 
depart," because every thing hath its time. 
It was expedient that I should suffer, to make 
a satisfaction for sin : it was expedient that I 
should die, that you might be delivered from 
death : it is expedient that I ascend, that so I 
may open you the way to ascending : " It is 
expedient that I depart from you, that so the 
Holy Ghost, which is the Comforter, may 
come." " But what is this," saith St. Ber- 
nard^, " this is a great mystery," " Unless I 
depart, the Comforter shall not come." Was 
the presence of the Holy Spirit so opposite unto 
the presence of Christ's humanity, which was 
not conceived, but by the operation of the same 
Holy Spirit, that now the one will not come 
without the departure of the other ? What is 
this, " Unless I depart ?" First, the Head is 
glorified, then the members are graced. The 

V In Ascens. Dom. 

,o O 

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Apostles for His Bodily absence shall have 
from henceforth the Holy Ghost to supply this 

n. '• In the creation, when the earth was 
without form, the Spirit moved upon the 
waters^ :" in the redemption, when the mind 
of man was without form, the same Spirit 
moved upon the sinful waters of our souls. 
" Thou sendest out Thy Spirit," saith the 
Prophet, *' and they are created ; and Thou 
shalt renew the face of them"." God the 
Father said, "Let there be light in this greater 
world :" God the Holy Ghost said, " Let 
there be the knowledge of God in the mind 
of man, of man this lesser world." God the 
Father said, " Let there be a firmament :" 
God the Holy Ghost said, " Let the will of 
man be confirmed in that which is good." 
God the Father said, " Let the waters be ga- 
thered together in one place :" God the Holy 
Ghost said, " Let many graces be united in 
one soul." God the Father said, " Let there 
be lights in Heaven :" God the Holy Ghost 

w Gen. i. 2. x Psalm civ. 30. 


o o 


said, "Let the lights of Faith, Hope, and 
Charity be fixed in the believing soul." God 
the Father said, " Let there be flying fowls :" 
God the Holy Ghost said, "Let there be 
meditations in the mind of man, soaring up- 
ward." God the Father said, " Let Us make 
man according to Our own likeness :" God 
the Holy Ghost hath said the self-same, " Let 
him be according to Our Image, holy as I 
am holy :" and thus we see our Saviour's 
saying verified, " it is expedient." 

in. Again, if we respect our regeneration, 
we know what was our state by nature, when 
the Apostle saith, " the children of wrathY :" 
but now being bom again by the Holy Ghost, 
we are cast in a new mould, and so are become 
" the children of God." If we respect the 
powers and faculties of the soul, the intellectual 
part, and the will, the intellectual part to 
discern, the will to desire heavenly things, 
these were restored by the Holy Spirit. • If we 
respect our sanctification, we were as Naaman 
the Syrian z, until our washing in this Jordan. 

y Ephes. ii. 3. z 2 Kings v. 14. 

o — -o 

o o 


Therefore is the Spirit of God called the Holy 
Spirit, either to discern it from other Spirits, 
or else from the powerful effect that it works 
in us, that is, when it makes us holy. If we 
respect the darkness of our understanding, the 
Holy Ghost is called </)<aTi(r/ior, " an enlighten- 
ing of the mind of man." If we respect the 
strengthening of our faith against terrors of 
conscience within ; " the Spirit of God doth 
hear witness," saith the Apostle, " to our 
spirit, whereby we cry, Abba, Father^." If 
we respect the calamities of the world without, 
Christ promising to send His Apostles this 
Holy Spirit, said, irapaKKrjTos ; " The Com- 
forter or Advocate shall come unto you^," to 
cheer up their sorrowful souls in all adversities* 
If we respect the mortification of the flesh, 
the same Apostle teUs us, " that we do this by 
the help of the Holy Spirit." If we respect 
the understanding, it was deaf and dumb until 
the Holy Ghost said, " Ephphatha." And 
what need we more to shew how expedient it 
was for us, and stiU, is, that we be partakers of 

a Bom. viii. ij, i6, b John xiv. i6. 

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o ^— o 


the Holy Spirit? Without the vital spirit, 
what is the mortal body but an earthly CEircass ? 
Without this Holy Spirit, what is the soul of 
man but a sepulchre of sin ? That there doth 
dwell in us a living spirit, our living actions 
shew ; that there is in us a divine Spirit, our 
divine actions approve. When heathen men 
did perceive that there was something in them, 
which did move them to discourse and com- 
pare things present with things to come, they 
did straightway gather that there was in man 
more than a lumpish body, which at last they 
found to be a soul : but when the children of 
God do find something within them that 
makes them to pray, to repent, and keeps them 
from falling into a thousand undoings, they 
straightwise perceive, that there is a man 
within the man, to wit, the Divine Spirit of 
God Himself, " we feel the motion, we know 
not the manner." The Angels' food from Hea- 
ven was called manna^, that is, "what is this?" 
When we have found the motions of Divine 
inspirations, we say, " Lord, what is this?" 

c Exod. xvi. ij.' 

o o 

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This is the Holy Ghost, and therefore for this 
article of our belief it may be said, we do not 
so much hear with our ears, or see with our 
eyes, but find it true in our very souls, " I 
believe in the Holy Ghost." 

IV. By our believing in Him, we acknow- 
ledge Him to be God. " Peter said unto 
Ananias, "Why hast thou lied unto the Holy 
Ghost ?" he by and by addeth, " Thou hast 
not lied unto man, but unto God**." The 
Holy Ghost therefore is God. The Apostle 
St. Paul saith to the Corinthians, " Know you 
not that your bodies are the temples of the 
Holy Ghoste ?" He by and by wUleth them 
to glorify God in their bodies ; the Holy 
Ghost therefore is God. Whosoever hath the 
power of cleansing from sin, the same is God ; 
but this power hath the Holy Ghost : the 
Holy Ghost therefore is God. He touched 
the lips of Isaiah and took away the sins. 
Last of all, to whomsoever we give glory, the 
same is God ; but as unto the Father and 
unto the Son glory is given, so also is it unto 

dActsv. 3, 4. e I Cor. vi. 19. 

o o 

o o 


the Holy Ghost. The Cherubims cry three 
times, " Holy, Holy, Holyf," as speaking to 
Three, and yet in the words following, " Lord 
God of Hosts," as appliable unto One. 

V. It is usual amongst those that love to 
leave pledges of love at parting ; so Jonathan 
left with David his coat and other things, his 
sword, his bow, as pledges of his love?. 
Elijah, when he was taken up into Heaven, 
left his cloak with his servant^. Our Jonathan 
hath left with us a pledge of love, His Holy 
Spirit, a pledge of our spiritual inheritance 
that is to come ; and our Elijah hath left us 
His righteousness, a precious garment to cover 
our unrighteousness : let us make much of 
it. When the woman of Samaria heard our 
Saviour Christ tell of a water, which being 
once drunk of, no thirst should follow : she 
said, " Lord, give me of this wateri." So 
when we do hear of that Spirit which doth 
sanctify our souls, cleanse our sins, comfort 
our consciences, illuminate our understanding, 

flsaiahvi.3. gi Sam, xviii.4. I 

h 2 Kings il. 14. ijohniv. ij. I 

D O 



strengthen our faith, and is as a pledge unto 
us of God's love, nay, of glory to come, so 
may we all say, " Lord, give us of this Spirit." 
VI. The excellent effects of this Divine 
Spirit, may be gathered by the manner of the 
appearing of the same Spirit : as in a cloud at 
our Saviour's transfiguration •^ : in the form of 
a dove at His Baptism 1 : and upon the Apo- 
stles in fiery tongues. The cloud may signify 
moisture, or the dew of Heaven : the cloud 
is also elevating : the dove signifieth humility, 
meekness, and peace : the fiery tongues, the 
seven gifts of the Holy Ghost, which have the 
seven qualities of fire. It is resembled unto 
fire, because it purgeth by the gift of fear ; it 
softeneth by the gift of piety ; it adorneth by 
the gift of knowledge ; it maketh solid by the 
gift of fortitude ; it lifteth up by the gift of coun- 
sel ; it enlighteneth by the gift of understand- 
ing ; it burneth by the gift of charity. It is 
resembled to tongues, to shew that these gifts 
as they burn inwardly, so do they speak out- 
wardly ; nay, of cloven tongues, as it were one 

k Matt. xvii. <. 1 Matt. iii. i6. 

O C 

D— ■ ^O 


tongue divided into many, for to shew the 
divers languages given by this Spirit. 

The Holy Ghost is resembled unto the wind, 
and there was a mighty wind at the coming 
down thereof ni : first, to shew that the doctrine 
of the Gospel should now break out into the 
world ; and that as none can keep back the 
force of the wind, so should none be able to 
hinder the passage of this doctrine : second- 
arily, the wind forcibly beareth down whatso- 
ever doth resist it ; so did the working of this 
Spirit : thirdly, the wind is wont to carry up 
the ship against the main stream or swiftest 
tides, so doth the Holy Ghost bear us up 
against the strongest current of natural incli- 

Again, the Holy Ghost is resembled unto 
water, because it cleanseth. David calleth it 
"a ri ght spirit" ;" right, because it leadeth us 
the right way. The Apostle calleth it, " the 
Spirit of Adoption" ;" because it maketh us 
the children of God. Sometimes it is called 

m Acts ii. a. n Psalm li. lo. 

o Rom. viii. 15. 

D O 



"the Teacher of truth p :" sometimes "the 
eternal Spirit q." All which names do tend to 
shew the divers operations of the Holy Ghost. 

It teacheth, it directeth, it comforteth, it 
cleanseth : in a cloud, in a dove, in fire, in 
tongues, in the wind : all which move us to 
pray with the Prophet, " Lord, send forth Thy 
Spirit, and we shall be created r," good and 
confirmed in good ; we shall be holy as He is 

VII. Contrariwise, without this Divine Spirit 
what are we but as the men of Sodom, stricken 
with blindness, not knowing which way to go ! 
Such was the case with Saul, who, when the 
Spirit of God was with him s, he was a man of 
courage and valour, able to encounter with the 
enemies of God ; but when once the Spirit of 
the Lord was departed from him, he was dis- 
tressed so wonderfully, that he runs to a sor- 
ceress, disguiseth himself, knows not in the 
world what to do, nor which way to take ; there 
was not a bush in the field nor a corner in his 

p John xiv. 26. q Heb. ix. 14. 

I r Psalm civ. 30. a i Sam. XTi. 14. 

o c 

o o 


house that could hide him from his troubled 
conscience. Elisha cried after Elijah, " My 
Father, my Father :" but Saul might have cried 
when the Spirit of the Lord departed from 
him, O my joy, my joy is gone : or as the 
wife of Phinehas, " the glory is departed* :" 
his body died once, but his heart often. 

When the prince removeth, all the prince's 
troop and every one of his train is removing ; 
so when the Spirit of the Lord removeth, all 
joy, all faith, all knowledge, all love at once 
departeth : wherefore the Church doth well 
and devoutly pray, " And take not Thy Holy 
Spirit from us." It was St. Austin's prayer^, 
and it is a sweet hymn in the Church, " Come, 
Holy Spirit," &c. If Satan findeth the house 
once empty, he entereth by a foul spirit : 
wherefore beseech we God that His Spirit 
may ever keep possession of our hearts. 

Now as Christ promised His Apostles the 
coming of the Holy Ghost, so did He also 
shew them how they should be prepared for 
the receiving and conserving thereof : first, 

t I Sam. iv. 21. u Aug. Med. 

o o 

o o 


they must wait for it ; secondarily, they must 
wait at Jerusalem, and there in an upper 
room : and what do they ? They are assem- 
bled with one accord. Thus must we prepare 
ourselves for the participation of the Holy 
Ghost : first, faith is necessary, for the Apo- 
stles believed'^; secondly, hope is necessary, 
for they expected the accomplishment of the 
promise ; thirdly, charity and unity are neces- 
sary, for they were assembled in love : the 
text saith, SfiodvuaSov, " with one accord ;" 
fourthly, holiness of conversation is neces- 
sary : they were in an upper room ; we must 
be remote from the fashions of the world. 
" The Spirit of God," saith the Wise Man, 
" dwelleth not in a body subject to sinY." 
Last of all, devotion is necessary ; they were 
all assembled in prayer. So the seventy elders 
received of the Spirit of the Lord at the door 
of the tabernacle z, a place of prayer ; and 
here we see both of receiving, as also the 
means of entertaining one and the same Holy 
Spirit. Gregory saith*, " The Holy Ghost is 

xActsxi.i. yWisd. 1.4. i Num. xi. 34, 2j. aGreg. Horn. 26. 

o o 

o — — o 


given on earth, that we should love men ; and 
the Holy Ghost is given from Heaven, that 
we should love God :" and if we love God, we 
must keep His commandments ; it is Christ's 
rule in the fourteenth of St. John. 

Last of all, whereas the receiving of the 
Holy Ghost is called " the earnest of the 
Spirit^," how many comforts are there which 
do hence consequently ensue '". When a sub- 
stantial dealer maketh a bargain or covenant, 
and in part of payment giveth earnest before- 
hand, the residue behind is as sure at the day, 
as if the party had it already down : God of 
His infinite love in Christ Jesus hath agreed 
with behevers, for the receiving of heavenly 
treasure, or treasure in Heaven : His Holy 
Spirit is given before in part of payment, a 
good earnest of the rest behind. This earnest 
is sufficient assurance that we shall receive 
that treasure, when the Sun of Righteous- 
ness shall appear, and aU His Holy Angels 
with Him. 

b 2 Cor. i. 23. c 2 Cor. vil. 4. 

o o 

o c 



That a remembrance of Christ His second coming 

to judgment, ought to move every well-disposed 

Christian seriously to apply himself to this 

lesson of learning to live while he is 

here, that it may go well with him 

when he is departed hence. 

To draw in the last place to a conclusion of 
this treatise of " Learning to Live," and to 
shew that a remembrance of Christ His second 
coming unto judgment ought to move every 
well-minded Christian to the study of the 
same ; let us a little call to mind, that the 
great Householder Whom we have all this 
while proposed unto our ourselves as the best 
pattern for imitation of living, even Christ 
Jesus, is gone into a far country, and hath 
committed His goods unto us His servants, 
willing us all to watch, because He will return 
at an hour we think not of. 

Upon which His caveat, we mav infer, that 

o c 



it much behoveth us to arise from a secure 
and sinful condition of life, that dangerous 
apoplexy of the soul, lest we depai*t this tran- 
sitory life unprepared for judgment to come. 

We know that whilst Jonah slept the ship 
was in danger of drowning, and that while 
men slept the enemy came and sowed tares, 
and that while Holofernes slept, his head was 
taken from him : our ship is the soul ; our 
enemy is Satan ; our head is Christ : let us 
keep Him, let us watch for Him, for He will 
come to judgment. " He will come, and will 
not tarry." 

To stir us up and to prepare us the better 
for this vigilancy. He Himself putteth us in 
mind of the days of Noah, in which was eating 
and drinking, not that they did so only is 
reproved, but that they gave themselves to 
nothing else ; and therefore destruction came 
suddenly upon them : as if He would shew us, 
that the world was drowned in sin before it 
was drowned with water ; and that their de- 
struction was not so sudden but that it was 
foretold them. " It was not," saith venerable 

O— o 




Bede, " their eating and drinking, but their 
addicting themselves altogether unto the same; 
and their not fearing, or so much as thinking 
upon the judgment that was coming upon 
them." Concerning Christ His coming to judg- 
ment, we are to observe out of the Evangelist, 
the three things, going before, accompanying 
His said coming, and signs that follow after : 
for signs going before, they are as so many 
heralds sent before the King of Glory c ; these 
are false prophets, wars, and rumours of wars 
famines, pestilences, earthquakes, the abound- 
ing of iniquity, waxing cold of charity, and 
such like ; these signs shew before that the 
time is near : for the signs that do accompany 
His coming, they are the darkening of the i 
sun, the moon losing her light, the falling ! 
of the stars of Heaven, the trouble of the 
powers of Heaven. 

When this ixiKpoKoa-fxos, or little world, Man, 
sufFereth great agony, his sense is troubled, 
and the whole body distressed, it is a sign that 
he is upon the dissolving ; how much more 

c Matt. xxiv. 

o c 

— . o 


shall this greater world be when these things 
are seen ? The signs following are the sepa- 
rating of the sheep and goats, the appointing 
to the left and right hand : the two sentences 
of judgment, " Go, you cursed ;" and, " Come, 
ye blessed." Then Pilate shall not need to ask, 
" Art Thou a King ?" but he shaU see it, that 
He is a " King of kings," and a " Lord of 
lords." Again, as we know the signs of old 
age, but not the year, month, week, nor day 
when the aged shall depart ; so, the world is to 
be dissolved we know by God's word, and the 
signs thereof, but when, we know not, neither 
ought we to inquire after it, only our care must 
be to live continually prepared for the same. 

To incite us to this care let us call to 
mind a little what the Holy Scripture saith 
concerning Christ His second coming unto 
judgment, as that " the sea shall restore 
the dead bodies that it hath, and likewise 
death and hell," &c.d Now what a wonderful 
sight will this be to see the sea and the 
earth bring forth such an huge multitude of 

d Rev. XX, 13. 

o o 

o c 


bodies from all parts and quarters of the 
world ! Then all shall arise never to die any 
more, and after this to receive a final doom, 
either of joy or pain. " Now," saith St. 
Peter," seeing we look for these things, what 
manner of persons ought we to be in holy 
conversation ?" Surely, holy ; therefore let 
us follow His counsel. Who is to us, as we 
have heard in this treatise beforegoing of 
" Learning to Live," " the Way, the Truth, 
and the Life." " Watch and pray," saith 
our Saviour, " lest that day come unawares^ :" 
let us arise therefore from the sleep of sin, 
and Christ shall give us light. When He 
Cometh to judgment, " who shall abide the 
day of His coming f ?" Who ? Surely they 
that evermore Uve in a preparation for this 
second coming of the Son of man in glory, 
and of their own departure out of this tran- 
sitory world : of the which preparation and 
departure, by God His assistance, more shall 
be shewed in the treatise following ; in the 
meantime this shall suffice to be spoken of 

e Matt. XXV. 13. f Mai. iii. 2. 

O C 




" Learning to Live :" which God of His 

mercy grant it may be to the glory of His 

Name, and the good of all Christian people. 

o— o 



LAND, from the Errors and Corruptions of 
the Church of Rome. By Dr. George Bull, 
late Lord Bishop of St. David's 2 6 

LIFE of BISHOP BULL. By R. Nelson, Esq. ; 
with a Preface by the Rev. J. H. Newman, B.D. 3 6 

By the Rev. John Keble, M. A. Professor of 
Poetry, late Fellow of Oriel College 3 6 

LI AM Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury and 
Martyr 3 6 

Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury and Martyr. 
Collected from his Remains 6 

RITUAL. Three Speeches. By Dr. Wil- 
liabi Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury and 
Martyr 3 6 

trick, D. D. sometime Lord Bishop of Ely ..26 

ALL TROUBLES : With a Consolatory Dis- 
course, particularly directed to those who have 
lost their friends and dear relations. By Symon 
Patrick, D. D. sometime Lord Bishop of Ely. 3 6 

PRAYERS. By Symon Patrick, D. D. 
sometime Lord Bishop of Ely. Edited by 
the Rev. F. E. Paget, M. A. Rector of El- 
ford, and Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of 
Oxford 3 6 

FASTING, especially of the Lent Fast. By 
Symon Patrick, D. D. sometime Lord Bishop 
of Elv 2 6 

O ^ ^ — o 

o o 



HOOD. By Hadrian Saravla 2 6 

J. Scandret, Priest of the Church of Eng- 
land 2 6 

D. D. sometime Rector of Winwick. Edited 
by the Rev. H. H. Sherlock, M. A. Incum- 
bent of Holy Trinity, Ashton-in-\Vin\\H[ck. ... 26 

LAND. By AxTHOVY Sparrow, D. D. 
sometime Lord Bishop of Norwich 5 

Discourse, moving every Christian JMan to 
enter into a serious remembrance of his end. 
By Christopher Suttox, D. D. sometime 
Prebend of Westminster 3 6 

SUPPER. By Christopher Sutton, D.D. 
sometime Prebend of Westminster 3 6 

THE GOLDEN GROVE, a choice Manual, 
containing what is to be believed, practised, 
and desired or prayed for; the Prayei-s being 
fitted to the sever.-il days of the week. By 
Jeremy Taylor, D. D 2 6 

THE RICH MAN'S DUTY to contribute libe- 
rally to the Building, Rebuilding, Repairing, 
Beautifying, and Adorning of Churches. By 
Richard Wells, D. D. sometime Rector of 
Cotesbach, Leicestershire. To which is added, 
of Stratford, Parliamentary Visitor for demo- 
lishing the Superstitious Pictures and Orna- 
ments of Churches, in the vears 1643, 1644 ..26 

o : o 

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SACRA PRIVATA ; Private Meditations, Devo- 
tions and Prayers. By Thomas Wilson, D.D. 
Bishop of Sodor and Man 3 6 

CLERGY ; with Instructions for an Academic 
Yonth, and Catechetical Instructions for Can- 
didates for Holy Orders. By Thomas Wil- 
son, D. D. Bishop of Sodor and Man 2 6 

LETTERS FROM A TUTOR to his Pupils. 
By the Rev. William Jones, IM. A. some- 
time perpetual Curate of Nayland, Suffolk. 
Edited by the Rev. E. Coleridge, M. A. Eton 
Cr)llege '. 2 6 

RESY, translated from the Latin, with an 
Introduction and an Appendix 2 6 

A PAR/ENESIS ; or, Seasonable Exhortatoiy to 
all true Sons of the Church of England. By 
H. Hammond, D. D 2 6 

COMPANION in the CLOSET; or, A com- 
TIONS; collected from the Writings of Arch- 
bishop Laud, Bishop Andhewes, Bishop 
Ken, Dr. Hickes, Mr. Kettlewell, Mr. 
Spinckes, and other eminent Divines of the 
Church of England. With a Preface by the 
Rev. Mr. Spinckes. A new edition, edited 
by the Rev. F. E. Paget, M. A. Rector of 
Elford 3 6 

Churches not to be violated. Written by Sir 
Henrv Spelman, Knight. Edited by the 
Rev. R. J. Sprangeh, M. A. Exeter College. 2 6 

oxford, published by JOHN HENRT PARKER. 

O . — c